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Author Topic: The Volkek-Oshra Language  (Read 1589 times)
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Mina
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« on: 25 December 2014, 18:09:55 »

Merry Christmas!  

I've been saying for a long time that I was working on the Volkek-Oshra language, and it's finally done.  Well, actually I kept deciding to start over from scratch nearly every time I got back to working on it, so this version is only a few months old.  It's probably also very simplistic compared to a real language, but I'm afraid my skills at this point aren't really enough to create a natural-looking language.  Maybe if I'll get there if I keep practicing, but I don't want to delay this language any further.  

Anyway, I've split it up into five parts:

  • Introduction and Quick Reference
  • Spelling and Pronunciation
  • Verbs
  • Nouns
  • Other Word Classes

Each part is meant to be one entry.  

I am also including the Volkek-Oshra to Tharian and the Tharian to Volkek-Oshra dictionary here.  The Volkek-Oshra to Tharian dictionary is in a different format from the other dictionaries on the site, and is arranged more like actual dictionaries.  I did it that way because I wanted to be able to give usage examples, multiple definitions, and definitions more complex than a simple translation.  
« Last Edit: 15 February 2015, 00:03:26 by Artimidor Federkiel » Logged

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« Reply #1 on: 25 December 2014, 18:10:20 »

Introduction

Although the Volkek-Oshra orcs of Ximax often speak Tharian in public, they have a distinct language of their own that they prefer to use amongst themselves.  It is known formally as Ghwad Vork'ekoshra, “Volkek-Oshra Language”, but the full name is seldom used; members of the tribe often refer to it simply as Ghwadaq'ach, “our language”.  

In 1578 b.S, the renowned Volkek-Oshra scholar Korchaguk wrote a book detailing its grammar and proposing a new spelling system to replace the ad hoc spellings that were then in use.  It quickly gave rise to an effort to standardise the language.  

The effort proved successful, and for the first time, there was general agreement over what the proper, standard form of the language was.  It is still the basis for what is taught in schools and used in formal situations today, as well as what is described in this entry.  However, it should be noted that colloquial forms of the language, often used in informal situations, can be quite different from it.  

Quick Reference

Verbs
Structure
[Subject Prefix] - [Aspect and Mood Prefix] - [Object Prefix] - Verb Root - [Suffixes]

Subject Prefixes
   
First Person
"I, we"
Second Person
"You"
Third Person
"He/she/it, they"
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"
Singular     Plural
q(a)

    ch(a)

kh(a)

    sh(a)

a if there is no other prefix
not marked if there is another prefix
    kr(a)

un(a)


Aspect and Mood Prefixes
   
Indicative
Potential
Imperative
Prohibitive
Perfective     Imperfective
not marked
    ak(a)
at(a)
    asj(a)
oq(a)
ogz(a)


Object Prefixes
   
First Person
"Me, us"
Second Person
"You"
Third Person
"Him/her/it, them"
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"
Singular     Plural
uga

    eka

ugha

    uzha

asa

    osa

ena


Suffixes
Causative(a)khtu
Passive(a)shka
Reflexive(a)net
Reciprocal(a)dezh

Nouns
Plural Suffix
(a)t

Possessive Suffixes
     
First Person
"My, our"
Second Person
"Your"
Third Person
"His/her/its, their"
Indefinite
"Someone's, something's, anyone's, anything's"
Singular     Plural
(a)q

     (a)q'ach

(a)g

     (a)gach

(a)z

     (a)zach

(a)n


Prepositions
Prepositional Object Suffixes
     
First Person
"Me, us"
Second Person
"You"
Third Person
"Him/her/it, them"
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"
Singular     Plural
(a)n

     (a)nat

(a)r

     (a)rat

not marked

     (a)dat

(a)nur

« Last Edit: 25 December 2014, 18:51:35 by Mina » Logged

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« Reply #2 on: 25 December 2014, 18:10:42 »

Spelling and Pronunciation

The language distinguishes 32 sounds: 4 vowel sounds and 28 consonant sounds.  They are described below.  

The spelling system was only standardised in 1578 b.S, more than four centuries after the Volkek-Oshra moved to Ximax.  Thus, the spelling used in texts originating from before that date do not always match what is shown here.  

There are also some older names, such as “Volkek-Oshra” itself (standard spelling: Vork'ekoshra or Vork'ek Oshra), that acquired widely accepted spellings before that date.  In many such cases, the older spelling remains common in informal writings and texts written by non-Volkek-Oshra, while the standard spelling is used in formal texts written by the Volkek-Oshra themselves.  

Vowels
SoundSpellingPronunciation
aaLike the “a” in “father”
eeLike the “e” in “bed”
ɔ̜oLike the word “awe
uLike the “oo” in “book”

Consonants
SoundSpellingPronunciation
chSimilar to ch', but less forceful
tʃʰch'Like the “ch” in “chill”
ddLike the “d” in “dog”
ggLike the “g” in “gill”
ɣghA hushing sound similar to kh, but voiced
gwSimilar to g, but with lips closer together
ɣʷghwSimilar to gh, but with lips closer together
jLike th “j” in “jog”
kkSimilar to k' but less forceful, like the “k” in “skill”
k'Like the “k” in “kill”
xkhA hushing sound similar to the “h” in “hat”, but more forceful
khwSimilar to kh, but with lips closer together
kwSimilar to k, but with lips closer together
kʷʰkw'Similar to k', but with lips closer together
mmLike the “m” in “mill”
nnLike the “n” in “nest”
qqSimilar to k, but more guttural
q'Similar to q, but more forceful
qwSimilar to q, but with lips closer together
qʷʰqw'Similar to q', but with lips closer together
r or ʀrA trilled “r” sound, sometimes guttural
ssLike the “s” in “same”
ʃshLike the “sh” in “shame”
ttSimilar to t' but less forceful, like the “t” in “still”
t'Like the “t” in “till”
βvSimilar to the “v” in “vat”, but produced by blowing air between the lips instead of between the upper teeth and lower lip
zzLike the “z” in “zest”
ʒzhLike the “s” in “pleasure”

Sound Changes
Adding suffixes beginning with r or a vowel to some words ending in certain consonants cause them to change those consonants.  Specifically:
  • Some words that end with g, gh, k, kh, or q change them to gw, ghw, kw, khw, or qw
  • Some words that end with ch, k, q, or t change them to ch', k', q', or t'
  • Some words that end with k or q change them to kw' or qw'
These words are shown in the dictionary with “(w)”, “(')”, or “(w')” at the end respectively, indicating that the bracketed letters are not to be written unless the word is followed immediately by a suffix beginning in r or a vowel.  

For example, the verb shuruk(w), “to cure or heal someone”, would be written without a “w” when it occurs without a suffix or with a suffix beginning in a consonant other than r.  

Qosashuruk.
“I cured them.”

However, when the word is immediately followed by a suffix beginning with a vowel, such as ashka, the “w” appears.  

Qashurukwashka.
“I was cured.”

Compound Words
Compound words may be written as a single word or separated into two or more words.  The exception is if the compound word contains a proper noun, in which case the proper noun must be separate.  Hyphens are sometimes used to link the separated words together.  The main word always comes first, followed by the modifying word.  

Raraskhrad / raras-khrad / raras khrad
“Milari”, literally “mountain-cat”

Ghwad-Vork'ekoshra / Ghwad Vork'ekoshra
"Volkek-Oshra Language"

Compound words are treated as a single unit when it comes to inflections, regardless of how they are written.  

Raras khradat
“Milaris

If, within a compound word, a word ending in “(w)”, “(')”, or “(w')” is followed by a word beginning in r or a vowel, the bracketed letters have to be written.  

Akshak'rugh / akshak'-rugh / akshak' rugh
“Pike”, literally “long-spear”
« Last Edit: 26 December 2014, 22:14:16 by Mina » Logged

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« Reply #3 on: 25 December 2014, 18:11:12 »

Verbs

In the Volkek-Oshra language, the verb is the most important part of the sentence, and usually comes first in it.  It is in fact possible for a sentence to consist only of a single verb.  For example:

Krasakhes.
"They set fire to it."

In this case, the verb has prefixes marking person and number agreement with both its subject and its object, which allows the subject and object pronouns to be omitted without information being lost.  The structure of a Volkek-Oshra verb is shown below:

[Subject Prefix] - [Aspect and Mood Prefix] - [Object Prefix] - Verb Root - [Suffixes]

A verb must contain a verb root, which always begins with a consonant.  The presence of the other parts depends on the meaning one wishes to convey, but there will always be at least one prefix.  

The prefixes are collectively known as the inflections.  The verb root, together with any suffixes present, form the verb stem.  

Subject Prefixes
All Volkek-Oshra verbs agree with their subjects in person and number, and this usually takes the form of a subject prefix placed at the front of the verb, before any other prefixes.  This also means that a separate subject word need not be present in the sentence.  

Kraghutud azhad.
The orcs ran.”

Kraghutud.
They ran.”

The prefixes are shown in the following table:

   
First Person
"I, we"
Second Person
"You"
Third Person
"He/she/it, they"
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"
Singular     Plural
q(a)

    ch(a)

kh(a)

    sh(a)

a if there is no other prefix
not marked if there is another prefix
    kr(a)

un(a)


The bracketed a are only included if the following sound is a consonant.  

If the verb has no subject prefix, but has another prefix, it is understood to be agreeing with a singular third person subject.  

Object Prefixes
Not all Volkek-Oshra verbs require objects.  For example, ghutud, “to run”, can appear in a sentence without an object and never agrees with the object even if it is present.  Such verbs are known as intransitive verbs.  When an object is present, it is always introduced by a preposition.  

Qaghutud.
“I ran.”

Qaghutud uga gherak.
“I ran to the house.”

However, many verbs require an object.  These are called transitive verbs, and they always carry a prefix marking person and number agreement with that object, which comes before the verb stem but after any other prefixes.  However, the object does not have to take the form of a separate word in the sentence.  

Qosakarcha t'erekat.
“I saw the rabbits.”

Qosakarcha.
“I saw them.”

These prefixes are shown in the following table:

   
First Person
"Me, us"
Second Person
"You"
Third Person
"Him/her/it, them"
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"
Singular     Plural
uga

    eka

ugha

    uzha

asa

    osa

ena


The object a transitive verb agrees with never appears with a preposition.  It is possible to add more objects to the sentence using propositions, resulting in a sentence with two or more objects, but the verb never agrees with these additional objects.  

Krosatakros gherakat.
“They built houses.”

Krosatakros gherakat kas ch'odek.
“They built houses in the city.”

Aspect and Mood Prefixes
Volkek-Oshra verbs do not distinguish between tenses.  If time is not otherwise indicated, they are usually translated in the past tense, but this does not really reflect how they are understood by speakers.  Depending on the context, they can describe present or future events as well.  If necessary, the time can be stated explicitly in the sentence.  

Krasakarcha khartos kas gestad.
“They saw a bear yesterday.”

Instead of tense, Volkek-Oshra verbs have aspect and mood.  Each verb is in one of four moods: indicative, potential, imperative, or prohibitive.  The indicative and potential moods further distinguish between the perfective and imperfective aspects.  These are usually indicated by means of a prefix, which comes between the subject and object prefixes.  They are shown in the following table:

   
Indicative
Potential
Imperative
Prohibitive
Perfective     Imperfective
not marked
    ak(a)
at(a)
    asj(a)
oq(a)
ogz(a)


The bracketed a are only included if the following sound is a consonant.  

If a verb does not have an aspect and mood prefix, it is understood to be a perfective indicative verb.  

Indicative Mood
The indicative mood is the default mood, and is usually used to make factual statements.  It is further divided the perfective indicative and the imperfective indicative.  

The perfective aspect is used to talk about an action as a single complete unit.  Its meaning is roughly “to do something” or “to have done something”.  The perfective indicative is the default form of the verb, and is not marked with a prefix.  

Qasakarcha raras.
“I saw a cat.” or “I have seen a cat.”

Kraseqesh.
“They arrived.” or “They have arrived.”

The imperfective aspect is used to talk about an action as being ongoing or habitual.  Its meaning is roughly “be doing something” or “used to do something”.  The imperfective indicative prefix is ak before a vowel and aka before a consonant.  

Krakosatakros gherakat.
“They were building houses.” or “They used to build houses.”

Potential Mood
The potential mood is also divided into perfective and imperfective.  The perfective aspect is used to talk about an action as a single complete unit, while the imperfective aspect is used to talk about an action as being ongoing or habitual, just like the indicative versions.  

However, in the potential mood, they don't make factual statements.  Instead, they describe something as being possible but not necessarily true.  The potential mood can also be used to talk about the future.  Thus, its meaning is roughly “might”, “would”, or “will”.  

The perfective potential prefix is at before a vowel and ata before a consonant, while the imperfective potential prefix is asj before a vowel and asja before a consonant.  

Kratasakarcha.
“They might have seen it.”
“They would have seen it.”
“They will see it.”

Krasjaghutud.
“They might be running.”
“They would be running.”
“They will be running.”

Imperative Mood
The imperative mood is used to suggest a course of action or give instructions.  The imperative prefix is oq before a vowel and oqa before a consonant.  

Choqamarad.
“Let's walk.”

Khoqasajagh.
“Take it.”

Kroqasakw'arek gadra uga k'achakh.
“They are to give the wand to the mage.”

Prohibitive Mood
The prohibitive mood is similar to the imperative mood, except that it is used to suggest or instruct that something not be done.  The prohibitive prefix is ogz before a vowel and ogza before a consonant.  

Chogzaghutud.
“Let's not run.”

Khogzenakhes.
“Don't set anything on fire.”

Ogzughakarcha.
“He/she/it must not see you.”

Suffixes
Suffixes can be added to a verb root or stem to create a new stem with different but related meaning.  There are four suffixes, which are listed below:  

Causative(a)khtu
Passive(a)shka
Reflexive(a)net
Reciprocal(a)dezh

The bracketed a are only included if the preceding sound is a consonant.  

Causative
The causative suffix is khtu after a vowel and akhtu after a consonant.  It causes the meaning of the verb to become “to make (verb)”.  

When the suffix is added to a verb, the original subject becomes the object, and a new subject is added.  This turns an intransitive verb into a transitive verb.  

Kraghutud.
They ran.”

Khosaghutudakhtu.
“You made them run.”

If the verb was already transitive, its original object is removed.  It can be added back to the sentence with the preposition t'ak.  

Krasachak kuruk.
“They ate a fish.”

Khosachakakhtu.
“You made them eat.”

Khosachakakhtu t'ak kuruk.
“You made them eat a fish.”

Passive
The passive suffix is shka after a vowel and ashka after a consonant.  It can only be added to transitive verbs, and turns them into intransitive verbs meaning “be (verb)ed”.  The original object becomes the new subject, while the original subject is removed and may optionally be added back to the sentence with the preposition zha.  

Osakarcha k'achakh.
“The mage saw them.”

Krakarchashka.
They were seen.”

Krakarchashka zha k'achakh.
“They were seen by the mage.”

Reflexive
The reflexive suffix is net after a vowel and anet after a consonant.  It can only be added to a transitive verb, turning it into an intransitive verb that describes the subject performing the action on itself.  

Krasak'adak.
“They hit it.”

Krak'adakanet.
“They hit themselves.”

Reciprocal
The reciprocal suffix is dezh after a vowel and adezh after a consonant.  It can only be added to a transitive verb, turning it into an intransitive verb that describes the subject, which is usually plural, performing the action on each other.  

Krak'adakadezh.
“They hit each other.”

Multiple Suffixes
Adding a suffix to a verb root or stem creates a new verb stem to which another suffix can be added.  Thus, it is possible to have multiple suffixes within a verb.  Unlike the prefixes, there is no fixed order in which suffixes have to be arranged.  However, since each new suffix alters the meaning of the entire stem it is added to, adding the same suffixes in a different order results in a different meaning.  

Krasagrak.
“They wrote it.”

Khosagrakakhtu.
“You made them write.”

Kragrakakhtushka.
“They were made to write.”

Agrakashka.
“It was written.”

Krasagrakashkakhtu.
“They caused it to be written.”

However, not all possible combinations will make sense. Also, while there is no limit to the number of suffixes that may be on a verb, it is very unusual to see more than a few of them.  


« Last Edit: 25 December 2014, 22:44:00 by Mina » Logged

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« Reply #4 on: 25 December 2014, 18:11:56 »

Nouns

Volkek-Oshra nouns are relatively simple compared to verbs.  They have at most two inflections, a plural suffix and a possessive suffix.  

Plural Suffix
The plural suffix is t after a vowel and at after a consonant.  It is used to mark a noun as being plural, but only when it is not being modified by a cardinal number or a quantifier.  

Azhad
“An orc”

Azhadat
“Orcs

Dezh azhad
“Two orcs”

Khwes azhad
“Some orcs”

Possessive Suffixes
The Volkek-Oshra language does not have possessive pronouns.  Instead, possessed nouns agree with their possessors in person and number.  The agreement suffixes are listed below:

   
First Person
"My, our"
Second Person
"Your"
Third Person
"His/her/its, their"
Indefinite
"Someone's, something's, anyone's, anything's"
Singular     Plural
(a)q

    (a)q'ach

(a)g

    (a)gach

(a)z

    (a)zach

(a)n


The bracketed a are only included if the preceding sound is a consonant.  

A separate possessor word is not needed, although it may be included for clarity.    

Gherakazach k'achakhat
The mages' house”

Gherakazach
Their house”

On plural nouns, the possessive suffix appears after the possessive suffix.  

Gherakatazach
Their houses”

Verbless Sentences
Nouns can appear in sentences without a verb.  This is used to equate one noun with another, and is done by simply placing the nouns next to each other.  

Azhad k'achakh.
“The orc is a mage.”

Sentences with Verbs
When a verb is present, the nouns usually appear after it.  Placing the noun in front of the verb serves to highlight it.  

Krasakarcha k'achakh.
“They saw the mage.”

K'achakh krasakarcha.
“The mage, they saw him.”

When there is more than one noun, it does not matter which noun comes first as long as it is clear which is the subject and which is the object.  Common sense, context, and agreement marking on the verb are usually sufficient to make this clear.  When they are not enough, placing a noun in front of the verb can be done to indicate that it is the subject.  This also highlights it.

Asakarcha raras k'achakh.
“The cat saw the mage.” or “The mage saw the cat.”

K'achakh asakarcha raras.
“The mage, he saw the cat.”

In this situation, if one wants to highlight the object, one should use the passive form of the verb, and place the object before it.  

Raras akarchashka zha k'achakh.
“The cat, it was seen by the mage.”


« Last Edit: 25 December 2014, 22:40:23 by Mina » Logged

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« Reply #5 on: 25 December 2014, 18:12:21 »

Other Word Classes

Adjectives
Adjectives are used to describe nouns.  They may be directly equated with a noun without a linking verb like “to be”.  

Churuk gherakat.
“The houses are red.”

When used attributively, such as in the phrase “the red houses”, adjectives act like relative clauses, and are attached to the noun with the relative clause particle esh.  

Krosatakros gherakat esh churuk.
“They built the red houses (houses that are red).”

Adverbs
Adverbs are words like “very” or “quickly”, that are used to modify verbs and adjectives, specifying things like manner or degree.  They are usually placed immediately after the verb or adjective they modify.  

Krasakarcha och'on raras.
“They saw the cat again.

Adjectives can be turned into adverbs by adding the prefix tos to the adjective, or to if the adjective begins with s, sh, z, or zh.  

Khwerazh
“Fast, quick”

Toskhwerazh
“Quickly

However, not all adverbs originate from adjectives.  

Adverbs are also used for making comparisons.  The adverb och'on is used to to make comparative statements.  The thing being compared to does not have to be explicitly stated, but if it is, it takes the preposition kas.  

Gakwa och'on khartos.
“The bear is bigger.”

Gakwa och'on khartos kas t'erek.
“The bear is bigger than the rabbit.”

For superlatives, the adverb q'ozh is used.  

Gakwa q'ozh khartos.
“The bear is the biggest.”

Demonstratives
The Volkek-Oshra language does not have definite and indefinite articles.  Nouns can be definite or indefinite depending on the context.  

Kwarokh
“A tree” or “The tree”

However, nouns can be made definite by using demonstratives.  Demonstratives are words like “this” or “those”, that are used to point out specific entities.  The Volkek-Oshra language has three demonstratives.  They must always be followed by a noun.  

Khu is used to point out something near the speaker.  It is roughly equivalent to “this/these”.  

Khu kwarokh
“This tree”

Chu is used to point out something near the listener, but not the speaker.  It roughly means “that/those (noun) near you”.  

Chu kwarokh
“That tree near you”

Qaru is used to point out something that is near neither the speaker nor the listener.  It roughly means “that/those (noun) over there”.  

Qaru kwarokh
“That tree over there”

Quantifiers
Quantifiers are words like “some”, “many”, or “all”, that are used to indicate quantity.  In the Volkek-Oshra language, are placed before the noun they modify, and may not appear without a noun.  Nouns modified by quantifiers never take the plural suffix.  

Khwes azhad
Some orcs” or “Some of the orcs”

When a demonstrative is also present, the quantifier is placed before it.  

Khwes khu azhad
Some of these orcs”

Numerals
Numeral words may be used as cardinal numbers (one, two, etc.) or ordinal numbers (first, second, etc.).  

When used as cardinal numbers, they are placed before the noun they modify, and are regarded as a type of quantifier.  Note that, like with other quantifiers, the noun never takes the plural suffix when it is modified by a cardinal number.  

Dezh kwarokh
“Two trees”

When used as an ordinal number, a numeral word functions as an adjective.  

T'erekat dezh.
“The rabbits are second.”

Gherak esh dezh
“The second house”

To count beyond ten (jekra), a number is added after it.  Multiples of ten can be indicated by placing a number before it.  They can be combined for more complex numbers.  Such numbers are considered compound words.  

Jekra dezh
“Twelve (ten and two)”

Dezh jekra
“Twenty (two tens)”

Dezh jekra rak
“Twenty three (two tens and three)”

The same is done for hundreds, thousands, and so on.  

Dezh qanot dezh jekra rak
“Two hundred and twenty three (two hundreds, two tens, and three)”

Prepositions
Prepositions are used to introduce additional objects to a sentence.  They usually carry a suffix marking person and number agreement with the object they introduce.  These suffixes are listed in the table below:  

   
First Person
"Me, us"
Second Person
"You"
Third Person
"Him/her/it, them"
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"
Singular     Plural
(a)n

    (a)nat

(a)r

    (a)rat

not marked

    (a)dat

(a)nur


The bracketed a are only included if the preceding sound is a consonant.  

If a preposition has no suffix, it is understood to be agreeing with a singular third person object.  

As they agree with the objects they introduce, it is possible for a preposition to appear alone, without a noun or pronoun.  

Khasatakros gherak zekadat k'achakhat.
“You built the house for the mages.”

Khasatakros gherak zekadat.
“You built the house for them.”

If quantifiers or demonstratives are present, the preposition comes before them.  

Zekadat khwes khu azhad
For some of these orcs”

Pronouns
Pronouns can substitute for a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence.  

Krasakarcha gherak esh churuk.
“They saw the red house.”

Krasakarcha kered.
“They saw it.”

However, due to agreement marking on verbs and prepositions, personal pronouns such as kered are seldom used.  When they appear, they are usually being used for emphasis.  For example, in the previous example Krasakarcha kered, it is being emphasised that they saw “it” and not something else.  

Personal pronouns form their plurals the same way as nouns, with the suffix at.  

Nokh
“I, me”

Nokhat
“We, us”

There are also some interrogative pronouns, which are used to form certain types of questions.  

Asajagh tagh?
Who took it?”

Particles
In the Volkek-Oshra language, particles are a class of words that used for various functions, modifying or connecting words, phrases, or sentences.  Here are a few examples:

Daq is placed before a sentence or clause to mark it as hypothetical and attach it to another.  Its meaning is roughly “if”.  

Kratasajagh gadra daq krasakarcha.
“They would take the wand if they saw it.”

Ek is placed before a noun or noun phrase to add it to another, turning them into a single unit.  It means “and”, but cannot be used to connect verbs.  

Krosakarcha ragash ek eresh.
“They saw a man and a woman.”

Ghat is placed before a sentence or clause to negate it.  It can be translated as “not”.  

Ghat krasakhes.
“They did not set fire to it.”

« Last Edit: 26 December 2014, 13:26:06 by Mina » Logged

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« Reply #6 on: 25 December 2014, 18:13:04 »

Volkek-Oshra to Tharian Dictionary

A
Agh (interjection)
  • Yes (affirmative answer to yes/no question)

Agnazh (noun)
  • Blood

Akshak(') (noun)
  • Spear, javelin, or other similar weapon

Akshak'rugh (noun)
  • Pike (weapon)

Azhad (noun)
  • Orc

Ch
Chak (verb)
  • To eat or drink something

Chu (demonstrative)
  • Indicates something near the listener but not the speaker, roughly “That/those (noun) near you”
    Eg. Chu kwarokh  “That tree near you”

Churuk (adjective)
  • Red, pink, orange, or brown

Ch'
Ch'odek (noun)
  • City, town, village

Ch'ukh (verb)
  • To grow, to mature

D
Daq (particle)
  • Placed before a sentence or clause to mark it as hypothetical, roughly equivalent to “if”.  
    Eg. Kratasajagh gadra daq krasakarcha.  “They would take the wand if they saw it.”

Dezh (numeral)
  • Two
  • Second

E
Ek (particle)
  • Roughly “and”, placed before a noun to attach it to another noun and indicate that they are to be treated as a unit
    Eg. Krosakarcha ragash ek eresh.  “They saw a man and a woman.”

Eresh (noun)
  • Woman, female person

Esh (particle)
  • Placed before a sentence or clause to turn it into a relative clause
    Eg. Azhadat esh krasatakros gherak.  “The orcs who built the house.”

G
Gadra (noun)
  • Tree branch
  • Stick, staff, wand

Gakwa (adjective)
  • Big, large

Gestad (noun)
  • Yesterday, the day before today

Grak (verb)
  • To dig, scrape, or scratch something, to make a cut in something without severing it
  • To write something

Grunas (adjective)
  • Strong, physically powerful

Gh
Ghat (particle)
  • Placed before a sentence or clause to negate it, roughly equivalent to “not”
    Eg. Ghat krasakhes.  “They did not set fire to it.”

Ghash (noun)
  • Fire, flame

Gherak (noun)
  • House
  • Building of any kind

Ghutud (verb)
  • To run

Gw
Gwarok (verb)
  • To fight someone
    Eg. Asagwarok khartos.  “He fought a bear.”

Gwek (noun)
  • Path, road, track

Gwunuch (adjective)
  • Old

Gwus (noun)
  • Cattle

Ghw
Ghwad (noun)
  • Mouth
  • Language, speech

Ghwat'as (verb)
  • To speak to someone
    Eg.  Krasaghwat'as k'achakh.  “They spoke to the mage.”

Ghwekh (noun)
  • Beast, land vertebrate
  • The meat of such an animal

J
Jagh (verb)
  • To take or seize something
  • To get something
  • To have something

Jekra (numeral)
  • Ten
  • Tenth

K
Karcha (verb)
  • To see something, to look at something

Kardagh (noun)
  • Warg, wolf

Kaq (particle)
  • Placed before a sentence or clause to turn it into a yes/no question
    Eg.  Kaq khasakarcha raras.  “Did you see the cat?”

Kas (preposition)
  • Marks the location an action happens at, roughly equivalent to “at”, “in”, “on”
    Eg. Krasakarcha khartos kas q'oresh.  “They saw a bear in the forest.”

Kered (pronoun)
  • He/she/it, him/her/it (singular third person pronoun)

Keshuruk(w) (noun)
  • Doctor, healer, physician

Krogh (noun)
  • Hole of any size, up to and including large cave networks
  • Gap

Kuruk (noun)
  • Fish
  • Generic term for aquatic animals, such as shellfish or whales
  • The flesh of such animals

K'
K'achakh (noun)
  • Mage
  • Shaman, priest

K'adak (verb)
  • To hit or strike something

K'adech (adjective)
  • Bright
  • Spiritually or magically powerful

K'agh (verb)
  • To make or create something

K'esh (noun)
  • Stone, rock

K'uruk (verb)
  • To want something
    Eg. Krasak'uruk akshak.  “They want the spear.”

Kh
Khartos (noun)
  • Bear

Kharkor (noun)
  • Hallway, tunnel, indoor or underground passageway

Khes (verb)
  • To burn something, to set fire to something

Khrad (noun)
  • Mountain, hill

Khu (demonstrative)
  • Indicates something near the speaker, roughly “this/these”
    Eg. Khu kwarokh  “This tree”

Khw
Khwagh (verb)
  • To make a hollow space such as a hole, ditch, tunnel, or cavern, especially by digging
    Eg. Krasakhwagh kharkor.  “They dug a tunnel.”

Khwerazh (adjective)
  • Fast or quick

Khwes (quantifier)
  • Some, some of
    Eg. Khwes azhad  “Some orcs, some of the orcs”

Kw
Kwarokh (noun)
  • Tree

Kw'
Kw'arek (verb)
  • To give away something, to hand over something
    Eg. Krosakw'arek gadrat uga k'achakh.  “They gave the wands to the mage.”

M
Marad (verb)
  • To walk
  • To go, to travel
  • To depart, to go away

Mukot (noun)
  • Room, cavern, indoor or underground space enclosed by walls and a ceiling

N
Nagezh (noun)
  • Head
  • Leader, head of a group or organisation, such as a chieftain or a king

Nesh (noun)
  • Nose, beak, bill, snout
  • The pointed front end of something, such as the head of a spear, the bow of a ship

Nokh (pronoun)
  • I, me (singular first person pronoun)

O
Och'on (adverb)
  • Again
    Eg. Krasakarcha och'on.  “They saw it again.”
  • More (comparative adverb)
    Eg. Gakwa och'on khartos.  “The bear is bigger (more big).”

Oros (noun)
  • The Sun
  • Daytime
  • A day

Oshra (adjective)
  • Spiritually attuned, capable of performing magic

Q
Qanot (numeral)
  • Hundred
  • Hundredth

Qaru (demonstrative)
  • Indicates something near neither the speaker nor the listener, roughly “that/those (noun) over there”
    Eg. Qaru kwarokh  “That tree over there”

Qash (particle)
  • Placed before a sentence or clause to turn it into the subject or object of a verb; the statement is treated as third person singular for agreement purposes
    Eg. Krasak'uruk qash asajagh k'achakh gadra.  “They want the mage to take the wand.”

Quruzh (noun)
  • River, stream

Q'
Q'arad (verb)
  • To rise
  • To stand

Q'oresh (noun)
  • Forest

Q'ozh (adverb)
  • Most (superlative adverb)
    Khwerazh q'ozh khu raras.  “This cat is the fastest (most fast).”

Qw
Qwak (verb)
  • To do what
    Eg. Kraqwak?  “What did they do?”

Qwodas (noun)
  • Lake, pool

Qw'
Qw'eshas (noun)
  • Field, plain
  • An open space in town, a square

R
Rak (numeral)
  • Three
  • Third

Ragash (noun)
  • Man, male person

Rakh (verb)
  • To cut, break, or otherwise divide something into two or more pieces

Raras (noun)
  • Cat

Raraskhrad (noun)
  • Milari cat

Regh (pronoun)
  • You (singular second person pronoun)

Rugh (adjective)
  • Long

S
Sana (particle)
  • Roughly “and, furthermore”, placed before a sentence or clause to connect it to another, treating them as a single event
    Eg. Krosatakros gherakat sana krosakhwagh kharkorat.  “They built houses and dug tunnels.”  

Seqesh (verb)
  • To come, to move towards the speaker
  • To arrive

Sezh (verb)
  • To exist, often used for “there is/are” expressions
    Eg. Krasezh khartosat kas q'oresh.  “There are bears in the forest (Bears exist in the forest).”

Sh
Shuruk(w) (verb)
  • To cure or heal someone

T
Tagh (pronoun)
  • Who (interrogative pronoun)
    Eg. Asajagh tagh?  “Who took it?”

Takros (verb)
  • To erect or build something, usually a relatively fixed and immovable structure
    Eg. Krosatakros gherakat.  “They built houses.”

Torekh (noun)
  • Earth, land, soil, the ground
  • Country, territory

T'
T'ak (preposition)
  • Marks something that is acted on, usually used to reintroduce the original object of a causative verb
    Eg. Khosachakakhtu t'ak kuruk.  “You made them eat a fish.”

T'erek (noun)
  • Rabbit, hare

U
Uch'okh (noun)
  • World, universe

Uga (preposition)
  • Marks the destination or recipient of an action, roughly “to”, “towards”, “into”, “onto”
    Eg. Kramarad uga quruzh.  “They went to the river.”

Uru (numeral)
  • One
  • First

V
Vekad (noun)
  • God, ghost, spirit, or other incorporeal being

Vork'ek (noun)
  • Tribe, clan, ethnic group

Z
Zak'ad (noun)
  • Person, sapient being

Zek (preposition)
  • Marks someone an action is performed for or on behalf of
    Eg. Krasajagh zek k'achakh.  "They took it for the mage."


Zh
Zha (preposition)
  • Marks something that carried out or was used to carry out an action, roughly “by, with”
    Eg. Asak'adak zha akshak.  “He hit it with a spear.”

Zhak (noun)
  • Eye, organ used for seeing

Zherak (noun)
  • The Moon
  • A month

« Last Edit: 27 December 2014, 15:46:49 by Mina » Logged

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« Reply #7 on: 25 December 2014, 18:13:27 »

Tharian to Volkek-Oshra Dictionary

A
Again = Och'on (adverb)
And (connects nouns only) = Ek (particle)
And (connects sentences only) = Sana (particle)
Animal (land vertebrate only) = Ghwekh (noun)
Aquatic animal (also refers to their flesh) = Kuruk (noun)
Arrive = Seqesh (verb)
At = Kas (preposition)

B
Bear (animal) = Khartos (noun)
Beast (animal) = Ghwekh (noun)
Beak = Nesh (noun)
Big = Gakwa (adjective)
Bill (beak) = Nesh (noun)
Blood = Agnazh (noun)
Branch (of a tree) = Gadra (noun)
Break (break something into two or more pieces) = Rakh (verb)
Bright = K'adech (adjective)
Brown = Churuk (adjective)
Build = Takros (verb)
Building = Gherak (noun)
Burn = Khes (verb)
By (someone or something that carried out an action) = Zha (preposition)

C
Cat = Raras (noun)
Cattle = Gwus (noun)
Cave = Krogh (noun)
Cavern = Mukot (noun)
Chief (leader) = Nagezh (noun)
City = Ch'odek (noun)
Clan = Vork'ek (noun)
Come = Seqesh (verb)
Country = Torekh (noun)
Create = K'agh (verb)
Cure (heal) = Shuruk(w) (verb)
Cut (into two or more pieces) = Rakh (verb)
Cut (without severing) = Grak (verb)

D
Day = Oros (noun)
Daytime = Oros (noun)
Depart = Marad (verb)
Dig (excavate) = Khwagh (verb)
Dig (into something) = Grak (verb)
Divide = Rakh (verb)
Doctor (physician) = Keshuruk(w) (noun)
Drink = Chak (verb)

E
Earth (ground, soil) = Torekh (noun)
Eat = Chak (verb)
Excavate (create by digging) = Khwagh (verb)
Exist = Sezh (verb)
Eye (organ used for seeing) = Zhak (noun)

F
Fast = Khwerazh (adjective)
Female person = Eresh (noun)
Field = Qw'eshas (noun)
Fight = Gwarok (verb)
Fire (flame) = Ghash (noun)
First = Uru (numeral)
Fish = Kuruk (noun)
For = Zek (preposition)
Forest = Q'oresh (noun)

G
Gap = Krogh (noun)
Get = Jagh (verb)
Ghost = Vekad (noun)
Give away = Kw'arek (verb)
Go = Marad (verb)
Go away = Marad (verb)
God = Vekad (noun)
Ground = Torekh (noun)
Grow (mature) = Ch'ukh (verb)

H
Hallway = Kharkor (noun)
Hand over = Kw'arek (verb)
Hare = T'erek (noun)
Have = Jagh (verb)
He = Kered (pronoun)
Head = Nagezh (noun)
Heal = Shuruk(w) (verb)
Healer = Keshuruk(w) (noun)
Her = Kered (pronoun)
Hill = Khrad (noun)
Him = Kered (pronoun)
Hit = K'adak (verb)
Hole = Krogh (noun)
House = Gherak (noun)
Hundred/hundredth = Qanot (numeral)

I
I = Nokh (pronoun)
If (marks sentence as hypothetical) = Daq (particle)
In = Kas (preposition)
Into = Uga (preposition)
It = Kered (pronoun)

J
Javelin (thrown spear) = Akshak(') (noun)

K


L
Lake = Qwodas (noun)
Land = Torekh (noun)
Language = Ghwad (noun)
Large = Gakwa (adjective)
Leader = Nagezh (noun)
Look at = Karcha (verb)
Long (enlongated) = Rugh (adjective)

M
Mage = K'achakh (noun)
Magic-using = Oshra (adjective)
Make = K'agh (verb)
Male person = Ragash (noun)
Man = Ragash (noun)
Mature (grow) = Ch'ukh (verb)
Me = Nokh (pronoun)
Meat (of land vertebrate) = Ghwekh
Milari cat = Raraskhrad (noun)
Month = Zherak (noun)
Moon = Zherak (noun)
More (comparative adverb) = Och'on (adverb)
Most (superlative adverb) = Q'ozh (adverb)
Mountain = Khrad (noun)
Mouth = Ghwad (noun)

N
Nose = Nesh (noun)
Not (negation particle) = Ghat (particle)

O
Object of causative verb = T'ak (preposition)
Old = Gwunuch (adjective)
On = Kas (preposition)
One = Uru (numeral)
Onto = Uga (preposition)
Orange (colour) = Churuk (adjective)
Orc = Azhad (noun)

P
Passageway (indoor or underground) = Kharkor (noun)
Path = Gwek (noun)
Person = Zak'ad (noun)
Pike (weapon) = Akshak'rugh (noun)
Pink = Churuk (adjective)
Plain (open country) = Qw'eshas (noun)
Pool = Qwodas (noun)
Powerful (physically) = Grunas (adjective)
Powerful (spiritually or magically) = K'adech (adjective)
Priest = K'achakh (noun)

Q
Question Particle = Kaq (particle)
Quick = Khwerazh (adjective)

R
Rabbit = T'erek (noun)
Red = Churuk (adjective)
Rise = Q'arad (verb)
River = Quruzh (noun)
Road = Gwek (noun)
Rock = K'esh (noun)
Room = Mukot (noun)
Run = Ghutud (verb)

S
Scrape = Grak (verb)
Scratch = Grak (verb)
Second = Dezh (numeral)
See = Karcha (verb)
Shaman = K'achakh (noun)
She = Kered (pronoun)
Snout = Nesh (noun)
Soil = Torekh (noun)
Some, some of = Khwes (quantifier)
Speak = Ghwat'as (verb)
Spear = Akshak(') (noun)
Speech (language, dialect) = Ghwad (noun)
Spirit = Vekad (noun)
Spiritually attuned = Oshra (adjective)
Square (open space in town) = Qw'eshas (noun)
Staff (stick) = Gadra (noun)
Stand = Q'arad (verb)
Stick (enlogated piece of wood or similar material) = Gadra (noun)
Stone = K'esh (noun)
Stream (small river) = Quruzh (noun)
Strike = K'adak (verb)
Strong = Grunas (adjective)
Sun = Oros (noun)

T
Take = Jagh (verb)
Ten/tenth = Jekra (numeral)
Territory = Torekh (noun)
That (relative clause particle) = Esh (particle)
That (subordinating particle) = Qash (particle)
That (that near you) = Chu (demonstrative)
That (that over there) = Qaru (demonstrative)
Third = Rak (numeral)
This/these = Khu (demonstrative)
Those (those near you) = Chu (demonstrative)
Those (those over there) = Qaru (demonstrative)
Three = Rak (numeral)
To (towards) = Uga (preposition)
Town = Ch'odek (noun)
Track (path) = Gwek (noun)
Travel = Marad (verb)
Tree = Kwarokh (noun)
Tribe = Vork'ek (noun)
Tunnel = Kharkor (noun)
Two = Dezh (numeral)

U
Universe = Uch'okh (noun)

V
Village = Ch'odek (noun)

W
Walk = Marad (verb)
Wand = Gadra (noun)
Want = K'uruk (verb)
Warg = Kardagh (noun)
What (do what) = Qwak (verb)
Who (interrogative pronoun) = Tagh (pronoun)
Who (relative clause particle) = Esh (particle)
With (something used to carry out an action) = Zha (preposition)
Wolf = Kardagh (noun)
Woman = Eresh (noun)
World = Uch'okh (noun)
Write = Grak (verb)

X


Y
Yes (affirmative answer to yes/no question) = Agh (interjection)
Yesterday = Gestad (noun)
You = Regh (pronoun)

Z


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