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Author Topic: Herbarium Resources and general information  (Read 9970 times)
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Ta`lia of the Seven Jewels
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« on: 09 September 2002, 16:33:00 »

Some crops from Jeshannon's pics, which can be used for Herbarium entries....




« Last Edit: 27 April 2007, 02:39:07 by Miraran Tehuriden » Logged

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« Reply #1 on: 24 June 2003, 05:04:00 »

For reference, I went through all three of the LOTR books plus the Hobbit and the Tom Bombadil cycle, which are also set in Middle Earth and made a comprehensive list of the foodstuffs, plants, and animals which are DIRECTLY (as opposed to 'indirectly' - for example, one can assume that grain existed based on the many references to bread and so on, but it is never explicitly mentioned as such) listed by Tolkien.

It's an interesting list, and it's obvious that Tolkien's love of philology and delight in the self-invented Elvish language (and other tongues he created) nonetheless was restrained by the desire to create a warmly familiar universe - the fantastic and magical 'mallorn' and 'lembas' standing out in sharper contrast to the homely bread and apples of the hobbits.

So - for our reference, here are the lists!
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

FOOD BORROWED FROM TERRA

Potatoes , Cabbages, Mushrooms, Corn, Turnips, Carrots, Barley

Apples, Sloes, Nuts, Berries, Blackberries, Chestnuts, Acorns, Cherries, Dried Fruits, Strawberries, Plums, Raspberries

Beer, Red Wine, Yellow Wine, Tea, Coffee, Milk, Ale, Brandy, Porter

Bacon, Mince Pies, Pork Pies, Fish, Salted Pork, Salted Meats, Roast Mutton, Chicken, Gravy

Eggs
Salad, Cress, Pickles
Sage, Marjoram, Bay, Thyme, Parsley, Green Herbs, Cardamom,

Butter, White Cheese, Red Cheese, Honey, Cream, Raspberry Jam, Jelly

Bread, Honeycake, White Bread, Flour Dumplings, Porridge, Buttered Toast, Cramsome Bread, Seedcake, Scones, Bannocks

FOOD CREATED BY TOLKIEN

Miruvor (cordial)
Lembas (elven waybread)
Cram (Dalefolk waybread)
?? (orc-draught, a searing strength drink)
?? (Ent-wash, a sustaining health drink)

PLANTS FROM TERRA

Snapdragons, Laburnums, Sunflowers, Nasturtians (sic), Roses, Heather, Forget-me-nots, Saxifrages, Stonecrop, Primeroles (sic), Anemones, Asphodel, Daffadowndillies (Daffodils), Daisies, Celandine, Hyacinths, Buttercups, Lavender, Rockroses, Clover,

Grass, Whin, Sedge, Gorse,

Waterlilies, Flaglilies, Reeds, Rushes

Birch, Fir, Alder, Willow, Oak, Elm, Ash, Pine, Beech, Chestnut, Rowan, Linden, Hawthorn, Larches, Tamarisk, Terebinth, Olive, Bay, Juniper, Myrtle, Cedar, Cypress, Yew

Ferns, Bracken, Ivy, Creepers, Eglantine, Clematis, Vines
Lichen, Moss, Moulds, Puffballs
Briars, Brambles, Thorns, Nettles, Thistles
Hemlock, Fireweed, Mugwort, Nightshade, Sorrel, Holly Bushes, Ilex, Boxwood, Whortleberry

PLANTS BY TOLKIEN

Pipeweed (westmansweed, galenas; renamed tobacco)
Athelas (kingsfoil, asea aranion; a healing plant)
Mallorn (gigantic grey-trunked, yellow-blossomed and golden-leaved elvish trees)
Elanor (golden flowers)
Niphredil (white and pale green flowers)
Hithlain (grey rope-making plant)
Simbelmyne (Evermind, small white flowers)
Lebethron (tree of Gondor)
?? (luminous but horrible charnel-smelling flowers in Cirith Ungol)
Mallos, Alfirin (golden elven bell-flowers)
?? (darkleaved trees with scarlet blossoms, of Ithilien)

BEASTS FROM TERRA

Eagles, Hawks, Swans, Ducks, Crows, Larks, Ravens, Hens & Cocks, Bats, Kingfishers, Gulls, Vultures, Finches, Dabchicks, Herons, Starlings, Wrens, Owls, Thrushes,

Snakes, Serpents, Frogs, Midges, Snails, Bees, Worms, Beetles, Spiders, Flies, Slugs, Moths, Butterflies, Lizards,

Dogs, Cats, White Wolves, Foxes

Horses, Ponies, Oxen, Cows, Sheep, Pigs, Goats
Bears, Red Deer (hart, buck, hind, fawn), Wild Boar, Wild Ox

Otters, Beavers, Squirrels, Rats, Waterrats, Voles, Mice, Rabbits, Hares, Coneys, Badgers, Seals

BEASTS BY TOLKIEN

Wargs (gigantic wolves)
Oliphants, Mumakil (renamed elephants)
The Watcher (type of kraken-thing?)
Fastitocalon (island-sized turtle)

RACES NOT ORIGINALLY INVENTED BY TOLKIEN BUT FOUND IN MANY OLD TERRAN MYTHOLOGIES

Dragons
Goblins
Elves
Giants
Dwarves       

FANTASY RACES INVENTED BY TOLKIEN

Hobbits
Orcs
Ents, Huorns
The Balrog
Nazgul
Woses (wild men, Pukel-men)


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




 <p></p>
« Last Edit: 27 April 2007, 02:23:14 by Miraran Tehuriden » Logged

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« Reply #2 on: 16 January 2006, 13:35:00 »

For those who aren't heroes with biology like me:

Everything you wanted to know about flower reproduction told in a very easy way.
« Last Edit: 27 April 2007, 02:38:35 by Miraran Tehuriden » Logged

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« Reply #3 on: 26 April 2007, 06:36:36 »

List compiled by Bard Judith

Resource: Reference List for attributes of Herbs and Medicinal Plants 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Database: Medicinal Uses




The Body

Ear, Nose and Throat and Eyes

    * Errhine Produces sneezing. (4)
    * Mouthwash Treats problems such as mouth ulcers. (10)
    * Mydriatic Dilates the pupils of the eyes. (9)
    * Odontalgic Treats toothache (temporary measure only) and other problems of the teeth and gums. (128)
    * Ophthalmic Treats eye complaints. (261)
    * Sialagogue Stimulates the secretion of saliva. (42)
    * Sternutatory Promotes sneezing and nasal discharges. (20)

Chest and Lungs

    * Antiasthmatic Treats asthma. (87)
    * Antitussive Prevents or relieves coughing. (144)
    * Decongestant Removes phlegm and mucous, especially from the respiratory system. (11)
    * Demulcent Soothes, lubricates and softens irritated tissues, especially the mucous membranes. (178)
    * Expectorant Clears phlegm from the chest by inducing coughing. (449)
    * Pectoral Relieves respiratory diseases, a remedy for chest diseases. (178)

Heart and Blood

    * Anticholesterolemic Prevents the build up of cholesterol. (45)
    * Anticoagulant Removes blood clots. (22)
    * Blood purifier Purifies the blood. (45)
    * Blood tonic Is this any different to a blood purifier? (40)
    * Cardiac Used in the treatment of heart problems. (109)
    * Cardiotonic A tonic for the heart. (142)
    * Haemolytic Breaks down red blood corpuscles to separate haemoglobin. (11)
    * Hypoglycaemic Reduces the levels of sugar in the blood. (73)
    * Hypotensive Reduces blood pressure, it is used in the treatment of high blood pressure (158)
    * Vasoconstrictor Narrows the blood vessels, thereby increasing blood pressure. (24)
    * Vasodilator Widens the blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure. (79)

Liver, Kidneys, and other internal bits

    * Antibilious Corrects the secretions of bile. (7)
    * Cholagogue Increases the flow of bile and its discharge from the body. (141)
    * Diuretic Acts on the kidneys, promoting the flow of urine. (1010)
    * Haemostatic Controls internal bleeding. (132)
    * Hepatic Acts on the liver (for better or worse!). (76)
    * Kidney Used in the treatment of kidney diseases (69)
    * Lithontripic Removes stones from the kidney, bladder etc. (51)

Stomach

    * Antacid Counters excess acidity in the stomach. (1)
    * Antiemetic Prevents vomiting. (40)
    * Digestive Aids digestion. (132)
    * Emetic Induces vomiting. (227)
    * Stomachic Aids and improves the action of the stomach. (491)

Bowles and Bladder

    * Antihaemorrhoidal Treats haemorrhoids (piles). This would probably be best added to another heading. (19)
    * Aperient A mild laxative. (75)
    * Carminative Reduces flatulence and expels gas from the intestines. (339)
    * Cathartic A strong laxative but less violent than a purgative. (90)
    * Hydrogogue A purgative that causes an abundant watery discharge. (8)
    * Laxative Stimulates bowel movements in a fairly gentle manner. (305)
    * Purgative A drastic laxative causing a cleansing or watery evacuation of the bowels, usually with a griping pain. (167)

Nerves and Muscles

    * Antispasmodic Relaxes muscular spasms and cramps, calming nervous irritation. (385)
    * Nervine Stimulates and calms the nerves. (100)

Bones

    * Antiarthritic Treats arthritis. (15)
    * Antiinflammatory Reduces inflammation of joints, injuries etc. (203)
    * Antirheumatic Treats rheumatism. (241)

Skin, Hands and Feet

    * Acrid Causes heat and irritation when applied to the skin. (12)
    * Antidermatosic Prevents or cures skin complaints. (1)
    * Antipruritic Treats itching of the skin. (39)
    * Foot care Plants that are used in various ways to treat foot problems. (13)
    * Skin Plants used in miscellaneous treatments for the skin. (262)
    * Vesicant A blistering agent. (9)

Sex and Repoduction

    * Abortifacient Causes an abortion. (56)
    * Anaphrodisiac Reduces sexual desire. (8)
    * Aphrodisiac Increases the sexual appetite. (87)
    * Birthing aid Used in facilitating birth, but not just to cause uterine contrctions. (60)
    * Contraceptive Prevents fertilization occurring in females. (70)
    * Emmenagogue Promotes or increases the menstrual flow. In early stages of pregnancy it can induce an abortion. (276)
    * Galactofuge Stops or reduces the flow of milk in a nursing mother. (15)
    * Galactogogue Promotes the flow of milk in a nursing mother. (117)
    * Infertility Used in treating problems of human fertility. (22)
    * Oxytoxic Hastens parturition and stimulates uterine contractions. See also birthing aids. (40)
    * Uterine tonic A tonic for the uterus. See also oxytoxic. (14)
    * Women's complaints A very vague title, it deals with a miscellany of problems peculiar to the female sex. (89)

Aliments

Treatment of Wounds and Bruises

    * Antiecchymotic Prevents or treats bruising. (8)
    * Antiseptic Preventing sepsis, decay or putrefaction, it destroys or arrests the growth of micro-organisms. (340)
    * Detergent A cleansing agent, used on wounds etc. It removes dead and diseased matter. (24)
    * Disinfectant Used for cleaning wounds. (44)
    * Plaster Used in the treatment of broken bones. (6)
    * Poultice A moist, usually warm or hot, mass of plant material applied to the skin in the treatment of burns etc. (431)
    * Salve Soothes and heals damaged skin. (143)
    * Styptic An astringent that stops bleeding by contracting the blood vessels. (88)
    * Vulnerary Promotes the healing of wounds. (199)

Pain Relief

    * Anaesthetic Numbs the feeling in a local or general area of the body. (25)
    * Analgesic Relieves pain. (244)
    * Anodyne Relieves pain, it is milder than an analgesic. (288)
    * Lenitive Soothing, palliative. (16)
    * Narcotic Relieves pain, induces drowsiness and gives a sense of well-being. (82)

Fevers

    * Antipyretic Treats fevers. See Febrifuge. (58)
    * Febrifuge Reduces fevers. (641)

Infectious Diseases

    * Antiperiodic Counteracts recurring illnesses such as malaria. (78)
    * Antiscrophulatic Counteracts scrofula. (TB, especially of the lymph glands) (16)
    * TB Plants used in the treatment of tuberculosis (54)
    * VD Used in the treatment of venereal disease (93)

Bites and stings

    * Antidote Counters poisoning. (134)
    * Stings Used in the treatment of stings and insect bites. (61)

Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi and Parisites

    * Anthelmintic Expels parasites from the gut. (207)
    * Antibacterial Kills bacteria. (247)
    * Antibiotic An agent that inhibits or destroys a living organism. It usually refers to bacteria or other micro-organisms and is probably synonymous with Antibacterial (20)
    * Antifungal An agent that inhibits or destroys fungi. Used in the treatment of various fungal problems such as candida. (57)
    * Antiviral Treats virus diseases (25)
    * Parasiticide Treats external parasites such as ringworm This should perhaps be joined with Parasiticide in 'Other Uses'. (64)
    * Vermifuge Expels and kills internal parasites. (156)
    * Warts Used in the treatment of warts, corns etc. (53)

Cancer

    * Antitumor Preventing, or effective against, tumors, it is used in the treatment of cancer. Probably synonymous with Cytotoxic. (60)
    * Cancer Used in the treatment of cancer. (316)
    * Cytostatic Slows or controls the growth of tumours. (12)
    * Cytotoxic Destroys body cells. Used in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where it is targeted against the cancer cells. (12)
    * Resolvent Breaks down tumors. This might be placed under antitumor. (44)

Alternative

Alternative and Complementary Medicine

    * Alterative Causes a gradual beneficial change in the body, usually through improved nutrition and elimination, without having any marked specific action. (130)
    * Aromatherapy Plants whose essential oils are used in Aromatherapy. (37)
    * Bach Plants used in the Bach flower remedies. (38)
    * Homeopathy A plant used in homeopathic treatments. (132)

General Well Being

    * Antiscorbutic A plant rich in vitamin C that is used to counteract scurvy. (87)
    * Balsamic A healing and soothing agent. (13)
    * Nutritive A food for convalescents to help restore strength. (40)
    * Tonic Improves general health. Slower acting than a stimulant, it brings steady improvement. (702)

Whole Body

    * Adaptogen Helps the body 'rise' to normal stress situations, thus preventing the many chronic degenerative diseases. (19)
    * Deobstruent Clears obstructions from the natural ducts of the body. (48)
    * Depurative Eliminates toxins and purifies the system, especially the blood. (197)

Other medicinal uses

    * Antidandruff Treats dandruff. (30)
    * Antihydrotic Reduces perspiration. (6)
    * Antiphlogistic Reduces inflammation. (135)
    * Antivinous Treats addiction to alcohol (11)
    * Appetizer Improves the appetite (68)
    * Aromatic Having an agreeable odour and stimulant qualities. (85)
    * Astringent Produces contraction in living tissue, reducing the flow of secretions and discharges of blood, mucus, diarrhoea etc. (851)
    * Bitter Increases the appetite and stimulates digestion by acting on the mucous membranes of the mouth. Also increases the flow of bile, stimulates repair of the gut wall lining and regulates the secretion of insulin and glucogen. (82)
    * Deodorant Masks smells. Is this medicinal? (24)
    * Diaphoretic Induces perspiration. (427)
    * Emollient Softens the skin, causing warmth and moisture. (118)
    * Enuresis Treats bed wetting. (7)
    * Hallucinogenic Causes the mind to hallucinate. (27)
    * Hypnotic Induces sleep. (68)
    * Irritant Causes irritation or abnormal sensitivity in living tissue. (25)
    * Miscellany Various medicinal actions that need more clarification. (192)
    * Refrigerant Cools the body. (60)
    * Restorative Restores consciousness or normal physiological activity. (16)
    * Rubefacient A counter-irritant and external stimulant, it produces inflammation and redness of the skin. (84)
    * Sedative Gently calms, reducing nervousness, distress and irritation. (301)
    * Stimulant Excites or quickens activity of the physiological processes. Faster acting than a tonic but differing from a narcotic in that it does not give a false sense of well-being. (313)

    * Antiaphonic Restores the voice. (8)
    * Antihalitosis Treats bad breath (13)

   

All the information contained in these pages is Copyright (C) Plants For A Future, 1996-2003. Last modified: June 2004 (may well have been modified since!)Plants For A Future is a charitable company limited by guarantee, registered in England and Wales. Charity No. 1057719, Company No. 3204567, HTML version prepared by Rich Morris - Home Page  Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. You can copy, distribute, display this works but: Attribution is required, its for Non-Commercial purposes, and it's Share Alike (GNUish/copyleft) i.e. has an identical license. We also ask that you let us know (webmaster@pfaf.org) if you link to, redistribute, make a derived work or do anything groovy with this information.
« Last Edit: 27 April 2007, 02:38:20 by Miraran Tehuriden » Logged

Avrah Kehabhra

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« Reply #4 on: 20 May 2008, 19:26:23 »

For future reference:  This is a Crop Order Chart – Ease of growth linked directly to historical development on Terra.   Let's see how Caelereth stacks up!


 1st Rank: Wheat, barley, peas (grains and legumes – high yield, fast growing, easily stored, self-pollinating.  These were the first crops to be domesticated.)

2nd Rank: Olives, figs, dates, pomegranates, grapes ( easiest fruit and nut trees to domesticate – will grow from cuttings or even seeds)

3rd Rank - Apples, pears, plums, cherries (cannot be grown from cuttings, seeds are highly variable and do not breed true - must be grown by grafting – need cross-pollinating)

At about the same time as the 3rd rank:  Rye, oats, turnips, radishes, beets, leeks, lettuce (began as wild plants or ‘weeds’)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Early Major Crop Types in the Ancient World
(thanks to ‘Guns, Germs, and Steel’, by Jared Diamond)


Cereals:  emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, millet, rice, corn, quinoa, sorghum, teff, knotweed, goosefoot, sugar cane

Pulses:  pea, lentil, chickpea, soybean, adzuki bean, mung bean, common bean, lima bean, peanut, cowpea, groundnut

Fibers:  flax, hemp, cotton, yucca, agave

Tubers: potato, jicama, manioc, cassava, sweet potato, yam, oca, taro, artichoke

Melons:  muskmelon, various squashes, watermelon, bottle gourd, cucumber

Later: bananas, breadfruit, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, pecans, cashews, almonds, quinces, citrus, apricots, peaches, coffee


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« Reply #5 on: 01 June 2008, 21:37:44 »

That's really neat Judith!
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