Santharian Development

Santharian World Development => Miscellaneous => Topic started by: Bard Judith on 21 July 2008, 21:23:55



Title: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 21 July 2008, 21:23:55
Measurement, Calibration, and Units of Temperature (Heat and Cold)

The brilliant gnomish inventor and alchemist Periklesius (Gnomic: 'Periklezeuz') originally designed his ‘Periklesian Temperature Tube’ to measure the changes in the weather, but after being contacted by the dwarven community and harassed by his fellow alchemists, he realized the potential of his new measurement device and expanded its range.  Although he was never able to construct a Periklesian Tube (or Peritube) which was capable of measuring the true extremes of heat and cold, the scale which he initially developed was expanded by other researchers, and divided into units called ‘periks’ (Gnomic: 'perikz' – about 10 terran degrees) in his honour.   We can now measure accurately to approximately a half-perik (5 terran degrees), within the range of our current devices.  The original Periklesian Tube  (Pertube, Per'meter) was a thick upright cylinder of glass, filled with a fluid in which small spheres or bubbles of glass filled with other fluids of varying viscosities would float freely, their height within the tube depending upon the temperature of the surrounding air (or other medium).  Much later Periklesius would simplify this, with the discovery that quicksilver, a mercurial substance produced from cinnabar ore,  reacted to heat and cold.   We owe our current 'Pertubes', slim quills of glass filled with quicksilver and marked neatly in periks, to his persistent euxperi (investigations) of how various substances reacted to varying temperatures.  

The benchmarks below are the most common ones we use on a regular basis: Periklesius’s original historical standards are in a bolder font.  As you can see, he chose the highest and lowest temperatures he could identify at the time, and the always-reliable point at which water freezes and boils as his calibration points.  We have been able to adjust and fill in considerably more benchmarks over the years, but his original scale remains the standard for most of Sarvonia – mainly the humans, gnomes and dwarves.  

Temperatures are given in ‘periks’, or ‘P’.  Temperatures below the freezing point of water, or ‘zero’, are either read as ‘below periks’ (B.P. - the dwarven preference), ‘lowpers’ ( L.P., a common human contraction), or rather affectedly as ‘Kirepz’ (K, by  the hobbits, who seem to find this humorous.  However, out of courtesy to the original inventor, the gnomish Periklesius, the Compendium has chosen to use his original suggestion – adopted by the gnomish community, and the standard which we hope will be used by scholars of all races from henceforth – the addition of a small 'minus'  mark preceeding any measurements in periks below 'zero'.

Temperature Measure is used to measure heat and cold, for describing climate, in alchemical applications, and for cookery. The standard of measurement is called a 'perik' after its inventor, and its main benchmarks are the freezing and boiling points of ordinary freshwater.  The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

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HOT & boiling, ignition, and melting points

‘room temp’ 2 Periks
average human body  approx 3.5
average dog 3.8
average cattle body 4
butter melts 3.5
hottest rec. temp 5.5
(was about 5 in P.'s original calibration)
fish cooks 6.5
taenish cooks 7
beef  6.5 to 7.5
alcohol boils 8
glass cracks 9 to 12
water boils 10
wood chars 12 to 15
paper yellows 15
hay ignites  17
paper scorches 20
leather ignites  21
paper ignites 23
wool cloth ignites 23
toccon cloth ignites 25
cooking oil ignites 30 to 35
woodfired oven  35 to 48
alcohol burns 36
coal ignites  40 to 50
well-rolled pipeweed 40 to 70
sand & sandstone become friable at 60
Open fire coalbed - up to 80
Candle flame  80 to 140
glass turns liquid 90 to 95
Wood-fired climbing kiln – in excess of 100 (P. originally calibrated to 100)
blast furnace 180
Molten magma/lava 70 to120  (stops flowing around 100)
Clay is fired from 120 to 250
Glass melts 140 to 160

-----------------------------------------------------

COLD & freezing points

water  0 Periks
food stays fresh -.5
plants die -.5 to -1

salt water -1 to -2
wine  –.5 to -1
beer - .3
quicksilver  -3.5 to 4
gnomish flesh – 1.8 to - 2
human flesh – 2.5 to – 3

orcen flesh - 4 to - 5
elven flesh – 5 to - 5.5
dwarven flesh - 6
coldest rec. temp. – 9
distilled alcohol freezes -10
mage-ice blasts – estimated at -20 or lower

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Periklesius also observed - but was not able to measure precisely at the time – the various 'rednesses' which iron radiates when heated.  He wrote:  “Zomeday yr zmiths, who know zo well at whott exact hue toh ztrike th' metal, or bend, or anneal, will speak kazually of itz heat in 'perikz' as eazily az they do now of itz kolourz...” and while we have not yet arrived at that kingdom-wide familiarity, we have been able to determine, as the great man was not, exactly what those hues amount to in periks!  Note:  the colours given are commonly used among most Tharian-speaking smiths, so can be treated as 'standards' in their own right.

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 Colours of Heated Iron

Blush 50 Periks
Blood 58
Medlar 63.5
Sour Cherry 69
Ripe Cherry 74.5
Vengeful 79
White-hot 120

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We are also able to give you, in slightly-less poetic categories, the forge flame colours, long an indication of their own heat as well.  While smiths do not, surprisingly, have unique names for these heats, most saying gruffly that 'it feels right' or that they 'jest know' from experience – but through observation and cross-checking a great many smithies, we have ventured to give our own names to specific temperature ranges that we have been able to distinguish.  

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Colours of Forge Flames

Dull red  50-60
Dark red  60-80
Bright red  80-100
Yellow red  100-120
Bright yellow  120-140
White  140-160
Dwarvenforges estimated 200 or more
Mage flame estimated 200 - 300
Draconic blue flame estimated 300

--------------------------------------------


Based on these calibrations,  the Compendium is also happy to announce that it can now provide you with specific heats, in periks, for melting points of many of our basic metals.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Melting Points of Common Metals

Aluminium melts at 6. 5 periks
Copper 11
Lead  30
Tin 20
Magnesium 65
Herne 70 - 85
Brass 90 - 100
Silver  90 to 95
Bronze 100
Gold 100
Nickel  140
Steel 120-160
Pure iron 150
Aurium 160 - 180
Mithril 200
   
----------------------------------------------

 








Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 11 August 2008, 00:40:17
A shameless bump!


 Though a grind is not included, for which you may all be thankful.  I doubt the forum has room for it....


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Aurora Damall on 11 August 2008, 12:26:44
A good entry, however I think some information on how he measured these tempratures are needed (did he use his own senses or some sort of tool?) Also I doubt room temprature is needed, as the temprature in medieval times was probably the same as the outside. Perhaps this should be given as the most comfrtable temprature.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 11 August 2008, 13:15:56
It's not yet an entry: lots of stuff to add yet! 

Details on the tube itself will tell you how the temperature was actually measured (the floating spheres with liquids of specific gravities) - as for calibration, he used the standards he had available, which are given above - the benchmarks of water freezing and boiling were his initial low and high.

  It was later expanded as people became aware that there were much lower temperatures, and alcohol freezing was used as the new 'low' or 'negative' benchmark.   Everything between 10 and 0 was divided into rough units (of about ten terran degrees) called periks, as between 0 and -10. 

And no, room temperature would very much depend on the type of architecture, but what would be the point of a house that didn't protect you from the elements?   Stone castles could be positively chilly even in summer, while even the rough shade of a peasant's hut would make a full perik's worth of difference from the sun.    'Room temperature' would have a range which would generically be defined as 'comfortable', I suppose, but it needs a more accessible name.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Aurora Damall on 12 August 2008, 03:55:26
Oops, I seemed to have accidentally went over the information on measuring devices :rolleyes: .


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 12 September 2008, 21:39:21
bumping - almost went off the bottom of the board!

Will get back on this asap.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 19 December 2008, 23:38:32
Bumping yet again.  Dreadfully negligent bard that I am, this poor little entry needs wrapping up!

Ah well, first the Tabula, and then we shall see.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Coren FrozenZephyr on 19 December 2008, 23:40:55
I've already used periks! See if you can find where ;)


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Decipher Ziron on 20 December 2008, 00:36:48
I know! Climate of Gondolwain! I must of read that at least 4 times trying to work out any geographical consistency I could find between that at the Meelaimad territories....


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Coren FrozenZephyr on 20 December 2008, 00:51:55
Someone is mixing his "have"s and "of"s again... To paraphrase Mr Murdstone: Now Deci boy... Recollect! control yourself, always control yourself!

Okay, what follows has nothing to do with this thread yet I shall foist it upon the entry-reading public as it is a quote which deserves to perused every now and then, pondered upon and savoured. Especially in light of certain less-than-civil exchanges taking place on the fora these days:

"The creed, as I should state it now, was this. Mr Murdstone was firm; nobody in his world was to be so firm as Mr Murdstone, nobody else in his world was to be firm at all, for everybody was to be bent to his firmness. Miss Murdstone was an exception. She might be firm, but only by relationship, and in an inferior and tributary degree. [Mrs Copperfield/now Mrs Murdstone] was another exception. She might be firm, and must be; but only in bearing their firmness, and firmly believing there was no other firmness upon earth." Charles Dickens, David Copperfield, Chapter 4.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Tharoc Wargrider on 21 December 2008, 07:14:16
I'm wondering if -4 is a little 'high' for Orcen flesh to freeze? Some of us live waaaaaay up north, and I imagine it to be colder than that on a warm day!

Or am I being silly?


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 21 December 2008, 09:37:38
No, not at all.  Good point.  Of course, these are in periks, not degrees... and a perik is about ten degrees.

But even so, orcs should be tougher than humans, and given what I was just discussing with Wren, perhaps elven flesh should have a lower freezing point, since they seem to be more impervious to the viscissitudes of weather!

Thanks for catching that.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 23 December 2008, 22:21:32
OK, revised but still have to check the scale for molten metals against my Elements entry.  Nearly done!  Comments, of course, gratefully accepted!


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Jeréth Ancalídormis on 14 January 2009, 07:54:51
Elven flesh is quite immune to cold, or at least resistant, Cyhallrhim seem quite immune to cold though...


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Gaffin on 14 January 2009, 08:01:30
I'd love to try my hand at an entry for Periklesius once I'm finished what I'm currently doing. He sounds like a most interesting fellow! :D :thumbup:


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Rookie Brownbark on 14 January 2009, 08:04:27
If you wanted to put in Brownie flesh freezing point....erm, I seriously have no idea.  I imagine them to be quite susceptible to cold, but that's because they have such a high about of skin to loose cold through compared to inner volume to produce heat.  Maybe their normal body temperature is naturally lower?  

But freezing points....what do you think?


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Jeréth Ancalídormis on 14 January 2009, 08:49:50
If you wanted to put in Brownie flesh freezing point....erm, I seriously have no idea.  I imagine them to be quite susceptible to cold, but that's because they have such a high about of skin to loose cold through compared to inner volume to produce heat.  Maybe their normal body temperature is naturally lower?  

But freezing points....what do you think?

typically small things freeze sooner: (Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms, so the less molecules there are to slow, the easier to freeze it)


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Lionhorse on 27 January 2009, 03:37:36
There is only one question I would like to ask: Does this temperature measurements (after acceptation) will work similar as in real world (not in Santharia)?


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Decipher Ziron on 27 January 2009, 04:08:09
Um....

What is your question exactly?


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Lionhorse on 27 January 2009, 04:11:33
Does this temperature measurements (after acceptation) will work similar as in real world (not in Santharia)?


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 27 January 2009, 08:50:50
I don't understand what you are trying to ask either, Lionhorse.  You need to rephrase or rewrite your question because although your words are English, they are arranged in such a way that your 'question' does not make grammatical sense.  We're not trying to be picky and deliberately misunderstand you - there are plenty of non-native English writers on these boards and our mandate is to help and critique and edit positively - but really, your question does not convey meaning.

Let me try to guess, however, and give some information:

It's a measurement system.  And yes, it works like any other measurement system, on Earth or Barsoom or Santharia.   It's used to give a range of 'benchmarks' so that people have numbers to match with certain levels of cold or heat.  Instead of saying 'it's cold enough to freeze water' you can now say 'It's zero periks out there!"   When alchemists are performing their euxperi (experiments), they can now with greater accuracy say 'heat to 50 periks' instead of 'the same heat as when iron begins to blush pinkish-red'.    1 perik on Santharia is roughly the same as 10 degrees on Earth.  Hope that answers whatever you were asking!


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Mannix on 27 January 2009, 08:57:46
Judy, that is celsius, isn't it? As in one perik equals ten celsius.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Lionhorse on 27 January 2009, 15:41:46
Now I understood...  :grin: Thanks Judith and sorry for my not understandable question!!! :grin: :thumbup: I'm not very good in English.


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 09 July 2010, 04:04:14
Bump: must finish this and get it ready for canon acceptance.  Regrettably, this important developer's tool has languished for years in limbo.  My apologies: the units of temperature measurement will soon join the other official measurements for developers' use!


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Artimidor Federkiel on 09 July 2010, 04:19:05
Yeah, would be great to finally get an entry up here, Judy! Because as long as an entry is not on site, we cannot really point people to it, and we'd have to ask them to dig through the Forum to find that information, and besides it could still change if the entry isn't finished. So whenever there's a chance to get something finished, let's try to make that effort!  :thumbup:


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Azhira Styralias on 09 July 2010, 05:10:43
Is there anything anyone else can do to help complete this?


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 12 July 2010, 03:38:13
I have made some additions (marked in yellow) and some unmarked edits for fluency and structure.   To the best of my knowledge there was no difficulty with the concept or the execution of the measurement units; therefore I propose that this be integrated into the  http://www.santharia.com/standards/measures_and_weights.htm (http://www.santharia.com/standards/measures_and_weights.htm)
entry exactly as all the other measurements are.

I suggest formatting it as follows:  the introductory text in a smaller font size and italics, then the introduction

"Temperature Measure is used to measure heat and cold, for describing climate, in alchemical applications, and for cookery. The standard of measurement is called a 'perik' after its inventor, and its main benchmarks are the freezing and boiling points of ordinary freshwater.  The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:"

should appear exactly as the other headings for the other measurements do, in Cataneo BT, followed by the five tables, in tabular form.  Thus:

Measures of Heat
Measures of Cold
Colours of Hot Iron / Colours of Forge Flames (perhaps these two could simply go side-by-side in one table of four columns)
Melting Points of Common Metals



Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Artimidor Federkiel on 13 July 2010, 03:49:46
Good to see this one saved, and I'm happy to put it up the way it is now :D

Smaller font size and italics for the introductory text... -might look a bit strange with all the different formats we have on the page (table is also a different font, also the header), but still the best option I guess that makes it possible to integrate. At any rate I think I'll update the tables to the more stylish looking History tables design in the process of integrating this, then we have that done as well. Cause right now I notice that the table headers don't look as they should e.g. in Firefox, so there's need to fix that anyway. And the old tables are, well, somewhat old.

Thanks for doing the final touches on this one, Judy, aura +1 for an important job well done!


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Bard Judith on 14 July 2010, 04:41:44
No, thank YOU, dear sage, for understanding what I was going on about.  Tabulating all the measurements again will make that a very stylish page.  Where will you put this - just added on at the end of the existing measurements?

Oh, and a fast-link at the top so people can see at a glance that 'Temperature' is also one of the measurements included in the entry, right?   


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Artimidor Federkiel on 14 July 2010, 04:51:16
Yep, yep, just let's tack it at the end, link on top, should be fine methinks :D


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units
Post by: Azhira Styralias on 14 July 2010, 05:03:37
Great work, Judy! I am happy to see you get this completed :clap:


Title: Re: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units - Questions
Post by: Deklitch Hardin on 24 July 2010, 10:23:02
I've got a question regarding this. From the way the table reads at the moment, the coolest temperature recorded is higher than the hottest temperature recorded.

This is what I mean ...

From 'Measures of heat' ...
5.5 hottest recorded temperature (was about 5 in P.'s original calibration)

From 'Measures of cold' ...
9 coldest recorded temperature

Did this 9 mean to have a - in front of it?

Or is the coldest temperature recorded above the freezing point of water? In which case, how do we know when water freezes?

Not trying to be difficult, just trying to understand this. :)