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Author Topic: Temperature - Measuring, Calibrating, and Units  (Read 7044 times)
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Bard Judith
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« on: 21 July 2008, 21:23:55 »

Measurement, Calibration, and Units of Temperature (Heat and Cold)

The brilliant gnomish inventor and alchemist Periklesius (Gnomic: 'Periklezeuz') originally designed his ‘Periklesian Temperature Tube’ to measure the changes in the weather, but after being contacted by the dwarven community and harassed by his fellow alchemists, he realized the potential of his new measurement device and expanded its range.  Although he was never able to construct a Periklesian Tube (or Peritube) which was capable of measuring the true extremes of heat and cold, the scale which he initially developed was expanded by other researchers, and divided into units called ‘periks’ (Gnomic: 'perikz' – about 10 terran degrees) in his honour.   We can now measure accurately to approximately a half-perik (5 terran degrees), within the range of our current devices.  The original Periklesian Tube  (Pertube, Per'meter) was a thick upright cylinder of glass, filled with a fluid in which small spheres or bubbles of glass filled with other fluids of varying viscosities would float freely, their height within the tube depending upon the temperature of the surrounding air (or other medium).  Much later Periklesius would simplify this, with the discovery that quicksilver, a mercurial substance produced from cinnabar ore,  reacted to heat and cold.   We owe our current 'Pertubes', slim quills of glass filled with quicksilver and marked neatly in periks, to his persistent euxperi (investigations) of how various substances reacted to varying temperatures.  

The benchmarks below are the most common ones we use on a regular basis: Periklesius’s original historical standards are in a bolder font.  As you can see, he chose the highest and lowest temperatures he could identify at the time, and the always-reliable point at which water freezes and boils as his calibration points.  We have been able to adjust and fill in considerably more benchmarks over the years, but his original scale remains the standard for most of Sarvonia – mainly the humans, gnomes and dwarves.  

Temperatures are given in ‘periks’, or ‘P’.  Temperatures below the freezing point of water, or ‘zero’, are either read as ‘below periks’ (B.P. - the dwarven preference), ‘lowpers’ ( L.P., a common human contraction), or rather affectedly as ‘Kirepz’ (K, by  the hobbits, who seem to find this humorous.  However, out of courtesy to the original inventor, the gnomish Periklesius, the Compendium has chosen to use his original suggestion – adopted by the gnomish community, and the standard which we hope will be used by scholars of all races from henceforth – the addition of a small 'minus'  mark preceeding any measurements in periks below 'zero'.

Temperature Measure is used to measure heat and cold, for describing climate, in alchemical applications, and for cookery. The standard of measurement is called a 'perik' after its inventor, and its main benchmarks are the freezing and boiling points of ordinary freshwater.  The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

--------------------------------------------------------------

HOT & boiling, ignition, and melting points

‘room temp’ 2 Periks
average human body  approx 3.5
average dog 3.8
average cattle body 4
butter melts 3.5
hottest rec. temp 5.5
(was about 5 in P.'s original calibration)
fish cooks 6.5
taenish cooks 7
beef  6.5 to 7.5
alcohol boils 8
glass cracks 9 to 12
water boils 10
wood chars 12 to 15
paper yellows 15
hay ignites  17
paper scorches 20
leather ignites  21
paper ignites 23
wool cloth ignites 23
toccon cloth ignites 25
cooking oil ignites 30 to 35
woodfired oven  35 to 48
alcohol burns 36
coal ignites  40 to 50
well-rolled pipeweed 40 to 70
sand & sandstone become friable at 60
Open fire coalbed - up to 80
Candle flame  80 to 140
glass turns liquid 90 to 95
Wood-fired climbing kiln – in excess of 100 (P. originally calibrated to 100)
blast furnace 180
Molten magma/lava 70 to120  (stops flowing around 100)
Clay is fired from 120 to 250
Glass melts 140 to 160


-----------------------------------------------------

COLD & freezing points

water  0 Periks
food stays fresh -.5
plants die -.5 to -1

salt water -1 to -2
wine  –.5 to -1
beer - .3
quicksilver  -3.5 to 4
gnomish flesh – 1.8 to - 2
human flesh – 2.5 to – 3

orcen flesh - 4 to - 5
elven flesh – 5 to - 5.5
dwarven flesh - 6
coldest rec. temp. – 9
distilled alcohol freezes -10
mage-ice blasts – estimated at -20 or lower


-------------------------------------------------------

Periklesius also observed - but was not able to measure precisely at the time – the various 'rednesses' which iron radiates when heated.  He wrote:  “Zomeday yr zmiths, who know zo well at whott exact hue toh ztrike th' metal, or bend, or anneal, will speak kazually of itz heat in 'perikz' as eazily az they do now of itz kolourz...” and while we have not yet arrived at that kingdom-wide familiarity, we have been able to determine, as the great man was not, exactly what those hues amount to in periks!  Note:  the colours given are commonly used among most Tharian-speaking smiths, so can be treated as 'standards' in their own right.

---------------------------------------------

Colours of Heated Iron

Blush 50 Periks
Blood 58
Medlar 63.5
Sour Cherry 69
Ripe Cherry 74.5
Vengeful 79
White-hot 120


--------------------------------------

We are also able to give you, in slightly-less poetic categories, the forge flame colours, long an indication of their own heat as well.  While smiths do not, surprisingly, have unique names for these heats, most saying gruffly that 'it feels right' or that they 'jest know' from experience – but through observation and cross-checking a great many smithies, we have ventured to give our own names to specific temperature ranges that we have been able to distinguish.  

--------------------------------------------------

Colours of Forge Flames

Dull red  50-60
Dark red  60-80
Bright red  80-100
Yellow red  100-120
Bright yellow  120-140
White  140-160
Dwarvenforges estimated 200 or more
Mage flame estimated 200 - 300
Draconic blue flame estimated 300


--------------------------------------------


Based on these calibrations,  the Compendium is also happy to announce that it can now provide you with specific heats, in periks, for melting points of many of our basic metals.

----------------------------------------------------------------

Melting Points of Common Metals

Aluminium melts at 6. 5 periks
Copper 11
Lead  30
Tin 20
Magnesium 65
Herne 70 - 85
Brass 90 - 100
Silver  90 to 95
Bronze 100
Gold 100
Nickel  140
Steel 120-160
Pure iron 150
Aurium 160 - 180
Mithril 200

   
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« Last Edit: 17 July 2010, 03:23:36 by Artimidor Federkiel » Logged

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Bard Judith
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« Reply #1 on: 11 August 2008, 00:40:17 »

A shameless bump!


 Though a grind is not included, for which you may all be thankful.  I doubt the forum has room for it....
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Aurora Damall
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« Reply #2 on: 11 August 2008, 12:26:44 »

A good entry, however I think some information on how he measured these tempratures are needed (did he use his own senses or some sort of tool?) Also I doubt room temprature is needed, as the temprature in medieval times was probably the same as the outside. Perhaps this should be given as the most comfrtable temprature.
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Bard Judith
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« Reply #3 on: 11 August 2008, 13:15:56 »

It's not yet an entry: lots of stuff to add yet! 

Details on the tube itself will tell you how the temperature was actually measured (the floating spheres with liquids of specific gravities) - as for calibration, he used the standards he had available, which are given above - the benchmarks of water freezing and boiling were his initial low and high.

  It was later expanded as people became aware that there were much lower temperatures, and alcohol freezing was used as the new 'low' or 'negative' benchmark.   Everything between 10 and 0 was divided into rough units (of about ten terran degrees) called periks, as between 0 and -10. 

And no, room temperature would very much depend on the type of architecture, but what would be the point of a house that didn't protect you from the elements?   Stone castles could be positively chilly even in summer, while even the rough shade of a peasant's hut would make a full perik's worth of difference from the sun.    'Room temperature' would have a range which would generically be defined as 'comfortable', I suppose, but it needs a more accessible name.
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« Reply #4 on: 12 August 2008, 03:55:26 »

Oops, I seemed to have accidentally went over the information on measuring devices rolleyes .
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Bard Judith
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« Reply #5 on: 12 September 2008, 21:39:21 »

bumping - almost went off the bottom of the board!

Will get back on this asap.
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« Reply #6 on: 19 December 2008, 23:38:32 »

Bumping yet again.  Dreadfully negligent bard that I am, this poor little entry needs wrapping up!

Ah well, first the Tabula, and then we shall see.
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Coren FrozenZephyr
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« Reply #7 on: 19 December 2008, 23:40:55 »

I've already used periks! See if you can find where ;)
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« Reply #8 on: 20 December 2008, 00:36:48 »

I know! Climate of Gondolwain! I must of read that at least 4 times trying to work out any geographical consistency I could find between that at the Meelaimad territories....
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« Reply #9 on: 20 December 2008, 00:51:55 »

Someone is mixing his "have"s and "of"s again... To paraphrase Mr Murdstone: Now Deci boy... Recollect! control yourself, always control yourself!

Okay, what follows has nothing to do with this thread yet I shall foist it upon the entry-reading public as it is a quote which deserves to perused every now and then, pondered upon and savoured. Especially in light of certain less-than-civil exchanges taking place on the fora these days:

"The creed, as I should state it now, was this. Mr Murdstone was firm; nobody in his world was to be so firm as Mr Murdstone, nobody else in his world was to be firm at all, for everybody was to be bent to his firmness. Miss Murdstone was an exception. She might be firm, but only by relationship, and in an inferior and tributary degree. [Mrs Copperfield/now Mrs Murdstone] was another exception. She might be firm, and must be; but only in bearing their firmness, and firmly believing there was no other firmness upon earth." Charles Dickens, David Copperfield, Chapter 4.
« Last Edit: 20 December 2008, 00:58:02 by Coren FrozenZephyr » Logged

"Everything should be as simple as possible and not simpler." Albert Einstein

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"Yes, what does that mean?"
"'Because I say so', I think."
"That doesn't sound like much of a rule!"
"Actually, it's the only one he needs." (Making Money by Terry Pratchett)
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« Reply #10 on: 21 December 2008, 07:14:16 »

I'm wondering if -4 is a little 'high' for Orcen flesh to freeze? Some of us live waaaaaay up north, and I imagine it to be colder than that on a warm day!

Or am I being silly?
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« Reply #11 on: 21 December 2008, 09:37:38 »

No, not at all.  Good point.  Of course, these are in periks, not degrees... and a perik is about ten degrees.

But even so, orcs should be tougher than humans, and given what I was just discussing with Wren, perhaps elven flesh should have a lower freezing point, since they seem to be more impervious to the viscissitudes of weather!

Thanks for catching that.
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« Reply #12 on: 23 December 2008, 22:21:32 »

OK, revised but still have to check the scale for molten metals against my Elements entry.  Nearly done!  Comments, of course, gratefully accepted!
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« Reply #13 on: 14 January 2009, 07:54:51 »

Elven flesh is quite immune to cold, or at least resistant, Cyhallrhim seem quite immune to cold though...
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« Reply #14 on: 14 January 2009, 08:01:30 »

I'd love to try my hand at an entry for Periklesius once I'm finished what I'm currently doing. He sounds like a most interesting fellow! :D thumbup
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