STYRÁSH SENTENCES

SENTENCE STRUCTURE - NEGATION AND EMPHASIS - CAUSATIVE SENTENCES

CONJUNCTIONS - RELATIVE CLAUSES

Sentence Structure. A proper sentence in Styrásh requires a verb and a subject. However, as a verb will often already agree with its subject in person and number, the subject is sometimes omitted. This is especially true in casual speech, as well as in poetry, where metrical requirements take precedence. This sometimes happens with articles and prepositions as well, as long as the meaning is already clear from the context.

The verb usually comes first in a Styrásh sentence, followed by the nouns. The order of the nouns is less important, as their roles are already specified by noun cases and prepositions.

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EXAMPLES OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Styrásh Tharian

Vaiát só feníl sá vevanthím
Vaiát sá vevanthím só feníl

The cat sees the bird Return to the top

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As seen in the above example, changing the order of the nouns does not change the meaning of the sentence, as their roles are already indicated by noun cases.

Negation and Emphasis. To form a negative sentence, one simply modifies the verb with the negative adverb néh. One can sometimes also find néh being used to modify adjectives or, less commonly, nouns. The positive counterpart of néh is áih. It is used like néh, except with the opposite meaning, providing emphasis rather than negation. Both néh and áih can also be used alone, where they mean "no" and "yes" respectively.

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EXAMPLES OF NEGATION AND EMPHASIS
Styrásh Tharian

Néh vaiát só feníl sá vevanthím

The cat does not see the bird

Artajén / néh artajén Honourable / Dishonourable, not honourable
Ylfiaruá / néh ylfiaruá Perfection / Imperfection
Áih vaiát só feníl sá vevanthím The cat does see the bird Return to the top
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Causative Sentences. Causative sentences, as the name suggests, express the meaning of causing something to happen. Styrásh seems to possess a few methods of producing such sentences.

To expess the idea of causing something to take on the property described by an adjective, one could add the ending -lán to the adjective. This turns the adjective into a verb that expresses such a meaning.

There are two additional rules to take note of when using -lán. First, if the last two sounds of the adjective it is added to is a vowel followed by n, the n becomes a l. However, if the last two sounds of the adjective are both consonant sounds, they remain unchanged, and instead the ending becomes -elán.

The ending -enán can be used in a similar way. However, unlike -lán, it can be applied to nouns as well, and seems to be used this way more often than it is used with adjectives. It sometimes becomes just -án, especially when the word it is added to already ends in -en.

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EXAMPLES OF CAUSATIVE SENTENCES
Styrásh Tharian

Raugií / Raugiilán

Pure / Purify

Raugiilanté naí sá marthím They purify the water
Aelién / Aeliellán White / Whiten
Árn / Arnelán Able, capable / Enable
Telór / Telorenán Song / Turn into a song
Telorenanté naí sáh lytherathían They turn the poems into songs
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Styrásh can also form causative sentences in a periphrasic way. This is done by using a verb, such as phoilán "to make" or tehlán "to cause" or some other verb that more specifically describes the method of causation. The resulting state is often indicated with the infinitive forms of styrán "to be" or nárán "to become", although they are sometimes omitted.

This method can also be used to express the causing of events, rather than just states.

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EXAMPLES OF CAUSATIVE SENTENCES II
Styrásh Tharian

Phoilát nó sá veiviyathím styrán modén

He makes the reading room dirty

Suanát nó só pacorím nárán ýph He paints the bear blue
Tehlanté naí ným suarhán án dosthím They cause him to write a book
Phoilanté naí sá dalathím aleán é gakkuathé They make the dragon sing cutely Return to the top
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Conjunctions. Conjunctions are used to join together parts of a sentence, or even entire sentences. They usually precede each segment that is being added. A segment headed by a conjunction can sometimes also be moved to the front, often in order to emphasise it.

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EXAMPLES OF CONJUNCTIONS
Styrásh Tharian

Só daí ám ýph ám aelién pacór

The red, (and) blue, and white bear

Vaianté naí án tán masyrthím mésh én gákk thyrón'heriním They see an irate fish or a cute jellyfish
Féhlyát nó sá masyrthím náh arneát ná ným He feeds the fish but it hits him
Tré rèthát nó, styrát sá córach When he returns, it is midnight Return to the top
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Relative Clauses. Relative clauses are used to modify nouns, providing additional detail about them. For example, in the phrase "the bird that the cat sees", the bolded segment is a relative clause modifying the noun "bird". In Styrásh, relative clauses are often added using the word , which has the possessive form tuís.

Another method that is sometimes employed is to use the participle form of verbs, as seen in the section on participles.

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EXAMPLES OF RELATIVE CAUSES
Styrásh Tharian

Sá veván vaiát só feníl

The bird that the cat sees

Só dél'áey tuís feníl vaiát sá vevanthím The mage whose cat sees the bird
Sá veván vaianhé ér só feníló The bird that was seen by the cat
Só dél'áey styrí vaiát nés só feníl sá vevanthím The mage whose cat sees the bird
(approximately, "the mage who is being such that his cat sees the bird") Return to the top
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 Date of last edit 10th Awakening Earth 1672 a.S.

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