THE STYRÁSH TENSES

THE PAST TENSE - THE FUTURE TENSE

Conjugation of verbs according to Styrásh tenses means to take the verb stem and to construct the ending according to tense and person. By looking at the ending it is usually possible to determine the exact tense and person of a word, regardless of the context, so that the subject could be even omitted if a specification isn't absolutely necessary. This is not possible in Tharian as tenses and persons are seperated from the verb and only determine meaning when put together.

The Styrásh Past Tense. The Past Tense - also known as the Perfect Tense - is used whenever actions that took place in the past are put into words. Tharian examples are the forms "I wrote", "you drew" or "we guessed" to correspond to the Present Tense equivalents of "I write", "you draw" and "we guess". While Tharian furthermore has a so-called Perfect Tense, which expresses more recently happened actions or actions which still are currently in progress (like "I have seen" or "you have started"), there is no such tense in Styrásh. Recent actions are either put into Present Tense or in regular Past Tense, with an appropriate time specification added.

The Past Tense is formed by adding -si- to the verb stem. It then takes the following endings to express singular and plural forms for each person. As is the case in the Present Tense, the subject follows the verb. Conjugation is regular, there are no exceptions unlike in Tharian, where there exists a variety of special Past Tense forms in examples like warned (regular), drew (irregular) and cut (identical with Present Tense form). In Styrásh the Past Tense always follows the same scheme: stem + tense addition + person form.

Let's take a look at a concrete example now by using the word "arán" (to go, word stem "ar-") and conjugate it in Past Tense form. Past Tense suffix and person suffixes are marked in white:

Singular Tharian Styrásh
1st person I went ar-
2nd person you went ar-sí-s qué
3rd person he/she went ar-sí-ti nó/ná
 
Plural Tharian Styrásh
1st person we went ar-sí-ns iuí
2nd person you went ar-si-ntís queí
3rd person they went (m./f.) ar-si-nté noí/naí

Other examples: der-án (to wound) – der-si (I wounded), han-án (to set) – han-si (I set), injèrán (to guide) – injèr-si (I guided), veiván (to read) – veivsí (I read).

If the stem ends in a vowel or a diphthong, -si- is also added directly to the stem: ale-án (to sing) – ale-si (I sang), erai-án (to flow) – erai-si (I flowed).

While there are no general exceptions to this basic rule on how a Past Tense form is constructed, there are certain adjustments necessary when special circumstances are involved. We summarize these in the following:

The Future Tense. The Future Tense is used whenever actions that take place in the future are put into words. Tharian examples are the forms "I will write", "you will draw" or "we will guess" to correspond to the Present Tense equivalents of "I write", "you draw" and "we guess". While Tharian also forms the future by using "going to" (e.g. "I'm going to write"), this form would be translated by the simple future in Styrásh.

The Future Tense is formed by adding -t- to the infinitive. It then takes the endings as described in the table below to express singular and plural forms for each person. As is the case in the Present Tense, the subject follows the verb. Conjugation is regular, there are no exceptions unlike in Tharian, where there exists a variety of Future Tense forms in examples like "will warn", "shall draw" and "going to cut". In Styrásh the Future Tense always follows the same scheme: infinitive + tense addition + person form. However, "about to" (e.g. "I'm about to write") is formed by using the adverb rofú (just) with the future tense.

Let's take a look at a concrete example now by using the word "unán" (to leave, infinitive stem "unan-") and conjugate it in Future Tense form. Future Tense suffix and person suffixes are marked in white:

Singular Tharian Styrásh
1st person I will leave unan-t-á
2nd person you will leave unan--t-ás qué
3rd person he/she will leave unan-t-át nó/ná
 
Plural Tharian Styrásh
1st person we will leave unan-t-áns iuí
2nd person you will leave unan--t-antís queí
3rd person they will leave (m./f.) unan-t-anté noí/naí

Other examples: der-án (to wound) – deran-tá (I will wound), han-án (to set) – hanan-tá (I will set), injèr-án (to guide) – injèran-tá (I will guide), veiv-án (to read) – veivan-tá (I will read). Return to the top

 Date of last edit 30th Changing Winds 1667 a.S.

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