Styrásh verbs are
more complex than their Tharian counterparts. They can be found in either the
indicative, imperative, participle, or infinitive form. The verbs are cited in
dictionaries in their infinitive forms; in order to find the uninflected bare
forms of the verbs, onto which endings are added during conjugation, remove the
-án ending from the dictionary forms.
indicative form is used for making statements. Verbs in the indicative form are
marked for either the past, present, or future tense. In addition, they agree
with their subjects in person and number, though not in gender. Below is a
table listing the present tense endings, which are shown attached to the verb
suarhán, “to write” (uninflected form:
The past and future tense conjugations are
more complicated, and are explained in a separate
Imperative. When in their imperative forms, verbs agree with
their subjects in number. The singular imperative ending is
-aiá, and the plural imperative ending is
The imperative form is primarily used for making requests or giving commands.
When used this way, the subject is usually omitted from the sentence; it is
clear that the subject is the person or persons being addressed.
When a subject is included, the sentence is typically expressing hope or
Participle. Verbs in their participle forms may be either in the
present tense, with the ending -í, or in
the past tense, with the ending -anhé.
However, the present tense ending is often omitted, especially when the verb is
being used as part of a compound word. The past tense ending is sometimes also
be omitted in compound words, particularly if not omitting it would result in a
very long word. Ultimately though, whether the ending is omitted usually
depends on how euphonious the resulting word is.
Unlike the indicative and imperative, verbs in their participle forms cannot be
used as the main verb of a sentence. They are generally used like adjectives,
to modify nouns, or to form clauses that do the same.
As seen from the second example above, the
past tense form, when used alone, usually also implies that the modified noun
has the action described by the participle verb performed on it, rather than
being the one performing the action, like in the other examples. However, this
implication is not present when it is being used to head a clause, as seen in
the final example above.
Inifinitive. As mentioned above, Styrásh
verbs are typically cited in their infinitive forms. The infinitive ending is
However, that is not the only use of the infinitive form. Like participles,
verbs in their infinitive forms cannot be used as the main verb of a sentence,
and instead are used for clauses within complex sentences. These infinitive
clauses are used like nouns; a complex sentence with an infinitive clause can
have it replaced by a normal noun and remain grammatically correct, although of
course the meaning of the sentence would likely become different. However,
these clauses are not declined like true nouns are, and also are not
accompanied by articles.
Passive Voice. The passive voice
emphasises what is being affected by the action. It is usually indicated by
putting the verb into its past participle form, and adding the verb styrán “to
be”. Styrán functions as the main verb of the passive sentence, and is
As seen from the first example below, the performer of the action is omitted entirely,
and instead the affected party becomes the subject of the sentence. However, it
is also possible for the performer of the action to be included in the sentence.
When doing so, it is marked with the ablative case and the preposition ér “by” -
see the second example.
Impersonal Subjects. Statements
with impersonal subjects, such as "it is raining" or "it is midnight", cannot be
directly translated into Styrásh, as Styrásh does not use impersonal subjects.
Instead, the equivalent Styrásh sentences will treat the event or state being
discussed as the subject of the sentence.
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