STYRÁSH VERBS

INDICATIVE - PARTICIPLE - INFINITIVE - PASSIVE VOICE - IMPERSONAL SUBJECTS

Styrásh verbs are more complex than their Tharian counterparts. They can be found in either the indicative, imperative, participle, or infinitive form. The verbs are cited in dictionaries in their infinitive forms; in order to find the uninflected bare forms of the verbs, onto which endings are added during conjugation, remove the -án ending from the dictionary forms.

Indicative. The indicative form is used for making statements. Verbs in the indicative form are marked for either the past, present, or future tense. In addition, they agree with their subjects in person and number, though not in gender. Below is a table listing the present tense endings, which are shown attached to the verb suarhán, “to write” (uninflected form: suarh-).

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PRESENT TENSE CONJUGATION

Person

Singular

Plural

1st Person suarhá
"I write"
suarháns
"We write"
2nd Person suarhás
"You write"
suarhantís
"You write"
3rd Person suarhát
"He/she/it writes"
suarhanté
"They write"
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The past and future tense conjugations are more complicated, and are explained in a separate entry. Return to the top

Imperative. When in their imperative forms, verbs agree with their subjects in number. The singular imperative ending is -aiá, and the plural imperative ending is -aiáh.

The imperative form is primarily used for making requests or giving commands. When used this way, the subject is usually omitted from the sentence; it is clear that the subject is the person or persons being addressed. When a subject is included, the sentence is typically expressing hope or desire.

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IMPERATIVE EXAMPLES
Styrásh Tharian

Veivaiá sá dosthím

Read the book

Artaiá sáh Aviaría uím
May the Aviaría bless us Return to the top
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Participle. Verbs in their participle forms may be either in the present tense, with the ending , or in the past tense, with the ending -anhé. However, the present tense ending is often omitted, especially when the verb is being used as part of a compound word. The past tense ending is sometimes also be omitted in compound words, particularly if not omitting it would result in a very long word. Ultimately though, whether the ending is omitted usually depends on how euphonious the resulting word is.

Unlike the indicative and imperative, verbs in their participle forms cannot be used as the main verb of a sentence. They are generally used like adjectives, to modify nouns, or to form clauses that do the same.

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PARTICIPLE EXAMPLES
Styrásh Tharian

Án aleí veván

A singing bird, a bird that is singing

contanhé aferó
The captured thief, the thief who was captured
Sá styrás veiví án dosthím The elf who is reading a book
Sá styrás veivanhé án dosthím The elf who was reading a book Return to the top
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 As seen from the second example above, the past tense form, when used alone, usually also implies that the modified noun has the action described by the participle verb performed on it, rather than being the one performing the action, like in the other examples. However, this implication is not present when it is being used to head a clause, as seen in the final example above. Return to the top

Inifinitive. As mentioned above, Styrásh verbs are typically cited in their infinitive forms. The infinitive ending is usually -án.

However, that is not the only use of the infinitive form. Like participles, verbs in their infinitive forms cannot be used as the main verb of a sentence, and instead are used for clauses within complex sentences. These infinitive clauses are used like nouns; a complex sentence with an infinitive clause can have it replaced by a normal noun and remain grammatically correct, although of course the meaning of the sentence would likely become different. However, these clauses are not declined like true nouns are, and also are not accompanied by articles.

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INFINITIVE EXAMPLES
Styrásh Tharian

Stygeysí iú ným aleán

I heard him sing

Stygeysí iú só telór
I heard the song
Styrát artajén mallán ác sá avelyathé To learn at the academy is respectable
Styrát artajén He is respectable Return to the top
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Passive Voice. The passive voice emphasises what is being affected by the action. It is usually indicated by putting the verb into its past participle form, and adding the verb styrán “to be”. Styrán functions as the main verb of the passive sentence, and is conjugated accordingly.

As seen from the first example below, the performer of the action is omitted entirely, and instead the affected party becomes the subject of the sentence. However, it is also possible for the performer of the action to be included in the sentence. When doing so, it is marked with the ablative case and the preposition ér “by” - see the second example.

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PASSIVE VOICE EXAMPLES

Styrásh

Tharian

Styrát sá veván vaianhé The bird is seen
Styrát sá veván vaianhé ér só feníló The bird is seen by the cat Return to the top
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Impersonal Subjects. Statements with impersonal subjects, such as "it is raining" or "it is midnight", cannot be directly translated into Styrásh, as Styrásh does not use impersonal subjects. Instead, the equivalent Styrásh sentences will treat the event or state being discussed as the subject of the sentence.

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IMPERSONAL SUBJECTS EXAMPLES

Styrásh

Tharian

Styrát án alýr "It is raining" (literally "Rain is being")
Styrát án córach "It is midnight" (literally "Midnight is being") Return to the top
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 Date of last edit 18th Frozen Rivers 1671 a.S.

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