GHWDAQ'ACH NOUNS

PLURAL SUFFIX - POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES - VERBLESS SENTENCES

Volkek-Oshra nouns are relatively simple compared to verbs. They have at most two inflections, a plural suffix and a possessive suffix.

PLURAL SUFFIX

The plural suffix is t after a vowel and at after a consonant. It is used to mark a noun as being plural, but only when it is not being modified by a cardinal number or a quantifier.

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EXAMPLES OF PLURALS
Singular Plural

Azhad (an orc)

Azhadat (orcs)

  Dezh azhad (two orcs)
  Khwes azhad (some orcs) Return to the top
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POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES

The Volkek-Oshra language does not have possessive pronouns. Instead, possessed nouns agree with their possessors in person and number. The agreement suffixes are listed below:

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EXAMPLES OF POSSESSIVE SUFFIXES

Person

Singular

Plural

First Person
"My, our"
(a)q (a)q'ach
Second Person
"Your"
(a)g (a)gach
Third Person
"His/her/its, their"
(a)z (a)zach
Indefinite
"Someone's, something's, anyone's, anything's"
(a)n (a)n
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The bracketed a are only included if the preceding sound is a consonant.

A separate possessor word is not needed, although it may be included for clarity.

Gherakazach k'achakhat
The mages' house”

Gherakazach
Their house”

On plural nouns, the possessive suffix appears after the possessive suffix.

Gherakatazach
Their houses”

VERBLESS SENTENCES

Nouns can appear in sentences without a verb. This is used to equate one noun with another, and is done by simply placing the nouns next to each other.

Azhad k'achakh.
“The orc is a mage.”

SENTENCES WITH VERBS

When a verb is present, the nouns usually appear after it. Placing the noun in front of the verb serves to highlight it.

Krasakarcha k'achakh.
“They saw the mage.”

K'achakh krasakarcha.
“The mage, they saw him.”

When there is more than one noun, it does not matter which noun comes first as long as it is clear which is the subject and which is the object. Common sense, context, and agreement marking on the verb are usually sufficient to make this clear. When they are not enough, placing a noun in front of the verb can be done to indicate that it is the subject. This also highlights it.

Asakarcha raras k'achakh.
“The cat saw the mage.” or “The mage saw the cat.”

K'achakh asakarcha raras.
“The mage, he saw the cat.”

In this situation, if one wants to highlight the object, one should use the passive form of the verb, and place the object before it.

Raras akarchashka zha k'achakh.
“The cat, it was seen by the mage.”
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 Date of last edit 17th Turning Star 1674 a.S.

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