GHWDAQ'ACH OTHER WORD CLASSES

ADJECTIVES - ADVERBS - DEMONSTRATIVES - QUANTIFIERS
NUMERALS - PREPOSITIONS - PRONOUNS - PARTICLES

ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are used to describe nouns. They may be directly equated with a noun without a linking verb like “to be”.

Churuk gherakat.
“The houses are red.”

When used attributively, such as in the phrase “the red houses”, adjectives act like relative clauses, and are attached to the noun with the relative clause particle esh.

Krosatakros gherakat esh churuk.
“They built the red houses (houses that are red).”
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ADVERBS

Adverbs are words like “very” or “quickly”, that are used to modify verbs and adjectives, specifying things like manner or degree. They are usually placed immediately after the verb or adjective they modify.

Krasakarcha och'on raras.
“They saw the cat again.

Adjectives can be turned into adverbs by adding the prefix tos to the adjective, or to if the adjective begins with s, sh, z, or zh.

Khwerazh
“Fast, quick”

Toskhwerazh
“Quickly

However, not all adverbs originate from adjectives.

Adverbs are also used for making comparisons. The adverb och'on is used to to make comparative statements. The thing being compared to does not have to be explicitly stated, but if it is, it takes the preposition kas.

Gakwa och'on khartos.
“The bear is bigger.”

Gakwa och'on khartos kas t'erek.
“The bear is bigger than the rabbit.”

For superlatives, the adverb q'ozh is used.

Gakwa q'ozh khartos.
“The bear is the biggest.”
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DEMONSTRATIVES

The Volkek-Oshra language does not have definite and indefinite articles. Nouns can be definite or indefinite depending on the context.

Kwarokh
“A tree” or “The tree”

However, nouns can be made definite by using demonstratives. Demonstratives are words like “this” or “those”, that are used to point out specific entities. The Volkek-Oshra language has three demonstratives. They must always be followed by a noun.

Khu is used to point out something near the speaker. It is roughly equivalent to “this/these”.

Khu kwarokh
“This tree”

Chu is used to point out something near the listener, but not the speaker. It roughly means “that/those (noun) near you”.

Chu kwarokh
“That tree near you”

Qaru is used to point out something that is near neither the speaker nor the listener. It roughly means “that/those (noun) over there”.

Qaru kwarokh
“That tree over there”
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QUANTIFIERS

Quantifiers are words like “some”, “many”, or “all”, that are used to indicate quantity. In the Volkek-Oshra language, are placed before the noun they modify, and may not appear without a noun. Nouns modified by quantifiers never take the plural suffix.

Khwes azhad
Some orcs” or “Some of the orcs”

When a demonstrative is also present, the quantifier is placed before it.

Khwes khu azhad
Some of these orcs”
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NUMERALS

Numeral words may be used as cardinal numbers (one, two, etc.) or ordinal numbers (first, second, etc.).

When used as cardinal numbers, they are placed before the noun they modify, and are regarded as a type of quantifier. Note that, like with other quantifiers, the noun never takes the plural suffix when it is modified by a cardinal number.

Dezh kwarokh
“Two trees”

When used as an ordinal number, a numeral word functions as an adjective.

T'erekat dezh.
“The rabbits are second.”

Gherak esh dezh
“The second house”

To count beyond ten (jekra), a number is added after it. Multiples of ten can be indicated by placing a number before it. They can be combined for more complex numbers. Such numbers are considered compound words.

Jekra dezh
“Twelve (ten and two)”

Dezh jekra
“Twenty (two tens)”

Dezh jekra rak
“Twenty three (two tens and three)”

The same is done for hundreds, thousands, and so on.

Dezh qanot dezh jekra rak
“Two hundred and twenty three (two hundreds, two tens, and three)”
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PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions are used to introduce additional objects to a sentence. They usually carry a suffix marking person and number agreement with the object they introduce. These suffixes are listed in the table below:

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EXAMPLES OF PREPOSITIONS

Person

Singular

Plural

First Person
"Me, us"
(a)n (a)nat
Second Person
"You"
(a)r (a)rat
Third Person
"Him/her/it, them"
not marked (a)dat
Indefinite
"Someone, something, anyone, anything"

(a)nur

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The bracketed a are only included if the preceding sound is a consonant.

If a preposition has no suffix, it is understood to be agreeing with a singular third person object.

As they agree with the objects they introduce, it is possible for a preposition to appear alone, without a noun or pronoun.

Khasatakros gherak zekadat k'achakhat.
“You built the house for the mages.”

Khasatakros gherak zekadat.
“You built the house for them.”

If quantifiers or demonstratives are present, the preposition comes before them.

Zekadat khwes khu azhad
For some of these orcs”
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PRONOUNS

Pronouns can substitute for a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence.

Krasakarcha gherak esh churuk.
“They saw the red house.”

Krasakarcha kered.
“They saw it.”

However, due to agreement marking on verbs and prepositions, personal pronouns such as kered are seldom used. When they appear, they are usually being used for emphasis. For example, in the previous example Krasakarcha kered, it is being emphasised that they saw “it” and not something else.

Personal pronouns form their plurals the same way as nouns, with the suffix at.

Nokh
“I, me”

Nokhat
“We, us”

There are also some interrogative pronouns, which are used to form certain types of questions.

Asajagh tagh?
Who took it?”
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PARTICLES

In the Volkek-Oshra language, particles are a class of words that used for various functions, modifying or connecting words, phrases, or sentences. Here are a few examples:

Daq is placed before a sentence or clause to mark it as hypothetical and attach it to another. Its meaning is roughly “if”.

Kratasajagh gadra daq krasakarcha.
“They would take the wand if they saw it.”

Ek is placed before a noun or noun phrase to add it to another, turning them into a single unit. It means “and”, but cannot be used to connect verbs.

Krosakarcha ragash ek eresh.
“They saw a man and a woman.”

Ghat is placed before a sentence or clause to negate it. It can be translated as “not”.

Ghat krasakhes.
“They did not set fire to it.”
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 Date of last edit 17th Turning Star 1674 a.S.

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