SANTHARIAN MEASURES AND WEIGHTS

LINE MEASURE - WET MEASURE - SEA MEASURE - DRY MEASURE - LAND MEASURE
HEFT MEASURE - TALLY MEASURE - SANTHARIAN CURRENCY - TEMPERATURE MEASURE

Below you can find an overview on all measures and weights, which are commonly used all over Santharian lands. This weights and measures standard was elaborated and defined under the rule of the Erpheronian King Thar and later on introduced in the United Kingdom of Santharia as well (with only a few minor modifications). Most of these measures are also valid or understood at trading towns of other continents such as Aeruillin or Nybelmar. Additionally to the common measure and weights tables this overview also contains tally measures used to measure precious metals, ore or gems as well as a list of common Santharian currency.

Line Measure is used to measure length, height and distances. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Grain
Equals about 2 mm across
Nailsbreadth Equals about one cm (a little smaller than ˝ an inch)
Palmspan Equals 1/3 of a fore, about 10 nailsbreadths (10 cm, 1 decimetre)
Fore Equals 1/3 of a ped (33 cm), derives from the term "fore arm"
Ped Equals the distance from King Thar’s breastbone to the tip of his middle finger with one arm outstretched (roughly 1 metre or approx. 3 feet)
Dash Equals 100 peds (100 metres, 300 feet)
Stral Equals 1000 peds (1 km)
League Equals in Santharia 6000 peds (6 km)
Furlay Equals a day's ride or 6 leagues
Cael Equals the purported radius of the disc of Caelereth
gfx

Wet Measure is used to measure liquids like alcohol, water, oils and similar things. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Drop
Equals a, well, a drop
Sip Equals about a shotglass
Tot Equals ˝ a mug, (our "cup")
Mug Equals 2 tots, or 1/3 of a firkin, represents a standard measure for drinks
Firkin Equals a useful bottle-size or 3 mugs (about 6 cups)
Barrel Equals 10 firkins
Tun Equals a very large barrel (2 peds high, volume not standard)
gfx

Sea Measure is used to measure distances at sea or other areas which contain liquids. Some of these measures are similar to the Line Measurements (see above). The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Scale Equals about a nailsbreadth (1 cm - 1 inch)
Handspan Equals the Line Measure Palmspan (1/3 of a fore)
Fore Equals the Line Measure Fore (1/3 of a ped), derives from the term "fore arm"
Spandar Equals roughly 2 peds, the extent of a man's arms at full stretch
Fres'cal Equals 5 spandars or 10 peds
Sal'cul Equals roughly the same length as the Line Measure "dash" (100 peds)
gfx

Dry Measure is used to measure flour, grains, spices etc. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Pinch Equals a pinch, duh!
Ladle Equals about 1 tablespoon
Scup Equals about ˝ a cup
Dipper Equals 2 cups (if water, equal in weight to one "od")
Trencher Equals 10 dippers, or 20 cups
Sack Equals a small cloth bag, a fore long, about 10 ods in weight bargesack - 100 od-weight cloth bag
gfx

Land Measure is used to measure areas/surfaces. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Seatprint Equals 1/3 of a ped * 1/3 ped (about one square foot)
Pallet Equals the standard mat and bedding size, 1 ped * 2 peds
Pen Equals 5 peds * 5 peds, represents the space a domestic animal (pig, sheep, goat) needs for living
Hold Equals about 3 dashes or 300 peds on each side, represents the hand-cultivatable area in one day
Powder Equals roughly 1000 peds square, can be plowed in one day
Perry Equals 1 league square, an average plot of land for a small farmer
gfx

Heft Measure is used to measure weights. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Mut Equals the weight of one dried mutnut heart (0.1 pounds or 1.6 ounces)
Od Equals one tenth of a heb (about a pound or half a kilogramme)
Hafeb Equals half a standard heb (roughly five pounds or 2.5 kilogramme)
Heb Equals 10 pounds (5 kg). Heb is the standard large unit of trade weights
Pygge Equals 10 heb or 100 od (100 pounds, 50 kg)
gfx

Tally Measure is used to measure precious metals, ore or gems. This measure doesn't have set values, but represents rather a subjective system, calculated on a complicated three-way sliding scale of quality versus size versus amount. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx

Measure

Description
Strike Slang name for a san, or copper coin
Minim Equals possibly one silver coin, or a small pearl
Glint, "Quarter-Bright" Equals one poorly minted gold coin, a large turquoise
Gleam, "Half-Bright" Equals a high quality gold coin, a small ruby
Starbright Equals approximately a sack of good copper ore
Moonbright Equals 100 starbrights
Sunbright Equals 10 moonbrights, extremly valuable
gfx

Below you can find an overview on the royal currency currently in circulation and accepted throughout most of the Santharian kingdom:

gfx gfx
gfx

Coin

Material

Shape

Value
San Copper Round 1 san, very common
Su Copper Triangle 3 san, less well-known
Erg Brass Square 4 san, less well-known
Od Brass Rectangular 10 san, standard measure
Hak Iron Pentagonal 50 san, 5 od, 1 copperbard
W'aer Silver Hexagonal 100 san, 10 od, 1 silverbard
Nune Gold Octagonal 1000 san, 100 od, 10 silver w'aer, 1 goldbard
Mithrene Mithril Decagonal 100 gold nune, very rare
Copperbard Copper Round 5 od or 50 san
Silverbard Silver Round 1 w'aer or 10 copperbards
Goldbard Gold Round 1 nune or 10 silverbards
gfx

MEASUREMENT, CALIBRATION AND UNITS OF TEMPERATURE
(
HEAT AND COLD)

The brilliant gnomish inventor and alchemist Periklesius (Gnomic: 'Periklezeuz') originally designed his ‘Periklesian Temperature Tube’ to measure the changes in the weather, but after being contacted by the dwarven community and harassed by his fellow alchemists, he realized the potential of his new measurement device and expanded its range. Although he was never able to construct a Periklesian Tube (or Peritube) which was capable of measuring the true extremes of heat and cold, the scale which he initially developed was expanded by other researchers, and divided into units called ‘periks’ (Gnomic: 'perikz' – about 10 terran degrees) in his honour. We can now measure accurately to approximately a half-perik (5 terran degrees), within the range of our current devices. The original Periklesian Tube (Pertube, Per'meter) was a thick upright cylinder of glass, filled with a fluid in which small spheres or bubbles of glass filled with other fluids of varying viscosities would float freely, their height within the tube depending upon the temperature of the surrounding air (or other medium). Much later Periklesius would simplify this, with the discovery that quicksilver, a mercurial substance produced from cinnabar ore, reacted to heat and cold. We owe our current 'Pertubes', slim quills of glass filled with quicksilver and marked neatly in periks, to his persistent euxperi (investigations) of how various substances reacted to varying temperatures.

The benchmarks below are the most common ones we use on a regular basis: Periklesius’s original historical standards are in a bolder font. As you can see, he chose the highest and lowest temperatures he could identify at the time, and the always-reliable point at which water freezes and boils as his calibration points. We have been able to adjust and fill in considerably more benchmarks over the years, but his original scale remains the standard for most of Sarvonia – mainly the humans, gnomes and dwarves.

Temperatures are given in ‘periks’, or ‘P’. Temperatures below the freezing point of water, or ‘zero’, are either read as ‘below periks’ (B.P. - the dwarven preference), ‘lowpers’ ( L.P., a common human contraction), or rather affectedly as ‘Kirepz’ (K, by the hobbits, who seem to find this humorous. However, out of courtesy to the original inventor, the gnomish Periklesius, the Compendium has chosen to use his original suggestion – adopted by the gnomish community, and the standard which we hope will be used by scholars of all races from henceforth – the addition of a small 'minus' mark preceeding any measurements in periks below 'zero'.

Temperature Measure is used to measure heat and cold, for describing climate, in alchemical applications, and for cookery. The standard of measurement is called a 'perik' after its inventor, and its main benchmarks are the freezing and boiling points of ordinary freshwater. The details of this measure can be summarized as follows:

gfx gfx
gfx
MEASURES OF HEAT

Periks Value

Boiling, Ignition or Melting Point Periks Value Boiling, Ignition or Melting Point
2 "room temperature" 23 paper ignites
approx. 3.5 average human body 23 wool cloth ignites
3.5 butter melts 25 toccon cloth ignites
3.8 average dog 30 to 35 cooking oil ignites
4 average cattle body 35 to 48 woodfired oven
5.5 hottest recorded temperature (was about 5 in P.'s original calibration) 36 alcohol burns
6.5 fish cooks 40 to 50 coal ignites
7 taenish cooks 40 to 70 well-rolled pipeweed
6.5 to 7.5 beef cooks 60 sand & sandstone become friable
8 alcohol boils up to 80 open fire coalbed
9 to 12 glass cracks 80 to 140 candle flame
10 water boils 90 to 95 glass turns liquid
12 to 15 wood chars 100 Wood-fired climbing kiln – in excess of (P. originally calibrated to 100)
15 paper yellows 70 to 120 molten magma/lava (stops flowing around 100)
17 hay ignites 180 blast furnace
20 paper scorches 120 to 250 clay is fired from
21 leather ignites 140 to 160 glass melts
gfx

gfx gfx
gfx
MEASURES OF COLD

Periks

Freezing Point Periks Freezing Point
0 water -2.5 to -3 human flesh
0.5 food stays fresh 4 to -5 orcen flesh
0.5 to -1 plants die 5 to -5.5 elven flesh
1 to -2 salt water 6 dwarven flesh
-0.5 to -1 wine 9 coldest recorded temperature
0.3 beer 10 distilled alcohol freezes
-3.5 to -4 quicksilver estimated at -20 or lower mage-ice blasts
1.8 to -2 gnomish flesh    
gfx

Periklesius also observed - but was not able to measure precisely at the time – the various 'rednesses' which iron radiates when heated. He wrote: “Zomeday yr zmiths, who know zo well at whott exact hue toh ztrike th' metal, or bend, or anneal, will speak kazually of itz heat in 'perikz' as eazily az they do now of itz kolourz...” and while we have not yet arrived at that kingdom-wide familiarity, we have been able to determine, as the great man was not, exactly what those hues amount to in periks! Note: the colours given are commonly used among most Tharian-speaking smiths, so can be treated as 'standards' in their own right.

gfx gfx
gfx
COLOURS OF HEATED IRON

Periks

Colour Periks Colour
50 Blush 74.5 Ripe Cherry
58 Blood 79 Vengeful
63.5 Medlar 120 White-hot
69 Sour Cherry    
gfx

We are also able to give you, in slightly-less poetic categories, the forge flame colours, long an indication of their own heat as well. While smiths do not, surprisingly, have unique names for these heats, most saying gruffly that 'it feels right' or that they 'jest know' from experience – but through observation and cross-checking a great many smithies, we have ventured to give our own names to specific temperature ranges that we have been able to distinguish.

gfx gfx
gfx
COLOURS OF FORGE FLAMES

Periks

Colour Periks Colour
50-60 Dull red 140-160 White
60-80 Dark red estimated 200 or more Dwarven Forges
80-100 Bright red 200-300 Mage flame estimated
100-120 Yellow red 300 Draconic blue flame estimated
120-140 Bright yellow    
gfx

Based on these calibrations, the Compendium is also happy to announce that it can now provide you with specific heats, in periks, for melting points of many of our basic metals.

gfx gfx
gfx
MELTING POINTS OF COMMON METALS

Periks

Colour Periks Colour
6.5 Aluminium melts 100 Bronze
11 Copper 100 Gold
20 Tin 120-160 Steel
30 Lead 140 Nickel
65 Magnesium 150 Pure iron
70-85 Herne 160-180 Aurium
90-95 Silver 200 Mithril
90-100 Brass    
gfx


Information provided by Bard Judith View Profile