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Author Topic: Notes on Styrásh grammar: factitives and bahuvrihis  (Read 2217 times)
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Anwulf II
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« on: 16 May 2007, 18:16:47 »

The following are some notes on aspects of the grammar of Styrásh extracted from the thread on new vocabulary to prevent them from disappearing into oblivion. (The usual disclaimer that this is all unofficial applies.)

1. Factitive verbs
Factitive verbs are verbs derived from adjectives. In English we use the suffixes -en (e.g. brighten; strengthen; widen) and -ify (e.g. beautify; solidify; simplify) They correspond to structures such as "make/turn X(noun) Y(adj)" (e.g. The snow turned the ground white.) There are two proposals for the formation of these verbs.

1.1 Proposal 1
Suffix: -lán

Conditions:
1. The suffix is restricted to monosyllabic adjectives.

(1)
   a. cholán to enlarge, expand < chó "great"
   b. corlán to blacken < cór "black"

2. If the adjective ends in -Vn, then /n/ becomes /l/ (cf. English illiterate < in-literate).

(2)
   a. mullán to soften < mún "soft"
   b. shellán to renew < shén "new"

3. If the adjective ends in -VCC (including -VCn), then the suffix becomes -elán.

(3)
   a. ahmelán to passify < áhm "passive"
   b. arnelán to enable < árn "able"

1.2 Proposal 2
Suffix: -en-án
This is a combination of the suffix -én, which forms adjectives from nouns, and the infinitive ending. Again, it's possible to do something similar in English (e.g. The white chess pieces had yellowed (= turned yellow) with age). The suffix can form verbs from any adjective.

(4)
   a. choenán to enlarge, expand < chó "great"
   b. munenán to soften < mún "soft"
   c. ahmenán to passify < áhm "passive"

1.3 Analytic factitives
As well as factitive formed from adjectives, English, Italian and other languages use some combination of verbs such as "make", "turn", "go" (or any verb indicating a change of state). (Words in braces are invented.)

(5)
   a. phoilsiti só styrós {noím} enáy "The elf freed them" (lit. "Made the elf them free")
   b. phoilsi iú sá ranthím lerýr "I made the reason clear" (lit. "Made I the reason clear")
   c. phoilsiti só daín chón melád "The sky turned grey" (lit. "Made the sky (it)self grey")
   d. phoilsinté sóh mód-ronnín só cár-scalím amncín "The dwarves imbued the sword with much power" (lit. "Made the dwarves the sword powerful")
   e. phoilsi só rónn sá astharthím salén "The king quietened the crowd" (lit. "Made the king the crowd quiet")

phoilán "to make" and cortán "to turn" might be used with transitive verbs (so the examples above). If the subject affects itself, the reflexive pronoun chón "self"{1} is used (so 5c and 6).

(6)
   a. corsití sá asthár chonthím salén "The crowd went quiet" (lit. "Turned the crowd (it)self quiet")
   b. phoilsití só daín choním lerýr "The day turned clear" (lit. "Made the day (it)self clear")
   c. corsinté sáh dél-aeyín chonían soór "The magicians became active" (lit. "Turned the magicians (them)selves active")

The verb narán "to become" can also be used when only the subject is affected.

(7)
   a. narsití sá asthár salén "The crowd became quiet" (lit. "Became the crowd quiet")
   b. narsití só daín lerýr "The day became clear" (lit. "Became the day clear")
   c. narsinté sáh dél-aeyín soór "The magicians became active" (lit. "Became the magicians active")

2. Bahuvrihi suffix
Quite a lot of adjectives have a kind of possessive sense meaning "full of" or "having (a property)". The suffix is -cín, which is added to nouns. The suffixes -ful and -ed have a similar function in English.

(8)
   a. alyr-cín rainy < alýr rain
   b. amn-cín powerful < ámn power
   c. artai-cín honoured, respected < artáj honour, respect
   d. arythash-cín principled < arythásh principle
   e. merin-cín flowery < merín flower

Notes.
1. In the examples, I've put chón into the accusative since, as the the object of the verb, this is the case it'd take. chón will agree in number (sg or pl) and gender (masculine or feminine) with the subject. But, it might be easier to leave it undeclined.
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Mina
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« Reply #1 on: 16 May 2007, 23:18:05 »

The examples you gave for proposal 2 are all adjectives.  Why would they need the -én ending in that case?  Wouldn't it make more sense for this to be applied to nouns? 
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Anwulf II
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« Reply #2 on: 17 May 2007, 00:47:54 »

The idea was that the suffix has been generalised from -én forming adjectives from nouns, and -án forming verbs directly from this particular class of adjectives. I'm inclined to share your doubts about this proposal, or perhaps the suffix -enán might form verbs from nouns.
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