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46  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Re: Kh'omchr'om (Orcish) Principles on: 14 October 2014, 13:02:56
Okay, I revised the spoken phonology. The sounds are bit weird, and not entirely in the right arrangement for a Terran language, but I think this can be safely ignored for green people. ;)

In terms of verbs, I just put together some stuff that I think is a bit exotic, and combined it. If true tenses are needed, those of course can be added as desired.

I think the next step for this is the noun synthesis rules.

Thank you so much for your patience here Mina!

47  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Kh'omchr'om (Orcish) Principles on: 13 October 2014, 12:59:12
This is a draft entry for the Kh'omchr'om Principles page that I have been working on. I have tried to integrate as much as I could that has already been written about Kh'omchr'om, but I was forced as a non-executive to make some executive decisions. I would appreciate any comments that you could add.

Bla-HFMQ LFMO kroch!
_____________________________________________________________________________


Introduction.
Kh'omchr'om is the common language of the North Sarvonian Orcs, used for intertribal communication, and trade. It is by no means their only language; most orcs, in fact, do not even speak Kh'omchr'om, instead speaking their local language. Despite that, it remains a unifying feature of the Orcish people throughout the North.

Basics.
   
  • Kh'omchr'om uses gestures to convey grammatical ideas. Many grammatical ideas are conveyed entirely through gestures, which are explained in the Phonology section.
  • Kh'omchr'om is somewhat agglutinative . That is to mean, a variety of morphemes can be combined to make larger ones, to form what in Tharian be a very big word
  • Kh'omchr'om does not have a copula. Unlike many other languages, Kh'omchr'om does not use a copula, like Tharian verb "to be" or Stryásh's "styrán". Instead, adjectives and subjects are just placed next to each other. For instance, the phrase "The guard is good" can be translated as just "Haz kroch", literally meaning "Guard good".
  • Kh'omchr'om is a VSO (verb-subject-object) language. That means that the verb starts the sentence, then the subject and then the object. For instance, the phrase "The orc hits the warg", would be translated into Kh'omchr'om as "Arq oc morgur", which can be literally translated as "Hit orc warg". The word order is strict; if the order of the words is changed, it changes the meaning. For example, if you switched "oc" and "morgur" in the example, into the sentence "Arq morgur oc", it would mean "The warg hits the orc". The same is true for when pronouns are used. The phrase "They eat the horse" would be translated as "Nom LCSO h'rok", never "Nom h'rok LCSO"
Spoken Phonology.
   
/a/ written as "a"
/e/ written as "e"
/i/ written as either "i" or "y"
/o/ written as "o"
/u/written as "u"
      
/ʔ/ written as "'"
/b/ written as "b"
/bʱ/ written as "bh"
/d/ written as "d"
/dʱ/ written as "dh"
/d͡ʒ/ written as "j"
/f/ written as "f"
/g/ written as "g"
/ɡʱ/ written as "gh"
/h/ written as "h"
/j/ written as "y"
/k/ sometimes written as "c" or also "k"
/kʰ/ written as "kh"
/l/ written as "l"
/m/ written as "m"
/n/ written as "n"
/p/ written as "p"
/pʰ/ written as "ph"
/ŋ/ written as "ng"
/q/ written as "q"
/ʁ/ written as "r"
/ɹ/ written as "rr", or sometimes "rh"
/s/ written as "s"
/ʃ/ written as "sh", or sometimes "sz"
/t/ written as "t"
/tʰ/ written as "th"
/t͡ʃ/ written as "ch"
/v/ written as "v"
/w/ written as "w"
/x/ written as "ck"
/z/ written as "z"
Gestured Phonology.
      Kh'omchr'om's gestural phonemes are just as important in the language as the spoken ones are. Each of the gestures is divided into four dimensions:
      
  • Height
  • Distance From Body
  • Orientation from Center
  • Shape of Hand

      Along each of those dimensions, there are just a few options, allowing each gesture to be cataloged.
      
Low Close Middle Grasped
                                    Rounded
High Far Side Open
      Each of those gestures can be identified by a four letter sequence, with each letter standing for each of the dimensions. For instance a gesture which is low and far from the core, to the side, and with a rounded hand, would be written as "LFSR". They are typically written  after the word, but they are signed at the same time as their proceeding word is being spoken.

      Thus, there is a set number (24) possible gesture radicals. They, and their instructions, can be found in the table below.
      
LCMG low hand, close to the body, middle of the body, grasped hand
LCMR low hand, close to the body, middle of the body, rounded hand
LCMO low hand, close to the body, middle of the body, open hand
LCSG low hand, close to the body, side of body, grasped hand
LCSR low hand, close to the body, side of body, rounded hand
LCSO low hand, close to the body, side of body, open hand
LFMG low hand, far from the body, middle of the body, grasped hand
LFMR low hand, far from the body, middle of the body, rounded hand
LFMO low hand, far from the body, middle of the body, open hand
LFSG low hand, far from the body, side of body, grasped hand
LFSR low hand, far from the body, side of body, rounded hand
LFSO low hand, far from the body, side of body, open hand
HCMG high hand, close to the body, middle of the body, grasped hand
HCMR high hand, close to the body, middle of the body, rounded hand
HCMO high hand, close to the body, middle of the body, open hand
HCSG high hand, close to the body, side of body, grasped hand
HCSR high hand, close to the body, side of body, rounded hand
HCSO high hand, close to the body, side of body, open hand
HFMG high hand, far from the body, middle of the body, grasped hand
HFMR high hand, far from the body, middle of the body, rounded hand
HFMO high hand, far from the body, middle of the body, open hand
HFSG high hand, far from the body, side of body, grasped hand
HFSR high hand, far from the body, side of body, rounded hand
HFSO high hand, far from the body, side of body, open hand
   These can be composed, like the spoken phonemes, into sequences. Those are not typically used in mainstream Kh'omchr'om, but are sometimes used in Kh'omchr'om's dialects.

Pronouns.
   Kh'omchr'om uses gestures to express its twelve pronouns.
   
  • LCMG singular 1st person pronoun
  • LCMO plural 1st person pronoun
  • LCSG singular 3rd person pronoun #1
  • LCSO plural 3rd person pronoun #1
  • LFMG singular 2nd person pronoun
  • LFMO plural 2nd person pronoun
  • LFSG singular 3rd person pronoun #2
  • LFSO plural 3rd person pronoun #2
  • HCSG singular 3rd person pronoun #3
  • HCSO plural 3rd person pronoun #3
  • HFSG  singular 3rd person pronoun #4
  • HFSO plural 3rd person pronoun #4

   Each of these pronouns can be used in exactly the same place that nouns can be used in Kh'omchr'om, except that it is signed during the speaking of the preceeding word. Each of the third person pronouns can be used in a context to identify different objects. For example,
      Uon LCMG LCSG. I see it.
      LCSG kroch. It is good.
      Uon LCMG LFSG "I see another thing", or literally "I see it"
      LFSG ashz. "The second thing is noble", again literally "It is noble"
   It this context, the thing that was first seen that is good, and the second, completely different thing is noble.

   In addition, due to the lack of determiners in Kh'omchr'om, pronouns are used for that purpose. They are used as adjectives to describe the noun being determined. For instance,
      Arq LCMO mar LCSG. We hit that wolf.
      Nom oc LCSO ar h'rok. Those orcs are eating some of the horse

Verbs.
   Kh'omchr'om does not distinguish between tenses, like Styrásh or Tharian. Instead, it distinguishes based on aspect and mood.
   Each of the moods in Kh'omchr'om refers to what kind of event the verb refers to. It can refer to something that definitely happened, as in the indicative, or something that is commanded to happen, as in the imperative.
   
  • The indicative mood is used to refer to things that definitely happened, are happening or will happen. "I jumped", "Fire is hot", and "Water is running in the river" are all examples of the indicative in Tharian. It is the default, unmarked mood. For some examples,
             Nom LCMO h'rok. We eat the horse.
             H'rrimt LFMO. You are (plural) stopping.
          
  • The imperative mood is generally used for commands, and instructions, but also in Kh'omchr'om the future. "Go over there!", "Let's walk", and "Chop the onion!" are all examples of the imperative mood. The gesture HFMO is used to express this mood.
             Arq-HFMO LFMO h'rok! Hit the horse!
          Note the pronoun there, "LFMO", which marks the sentence as being a 2nd person plural command. The imperative is also used in Kh'omchr'om to express particular events in the future.
             Arq-HFMO LCSG h'rok. Literally "Him! Hit the horse", but really means "He will hit the horse"
          
   Within the indicative mood, there are two aspects. Each of the aspects marks a perspective on time, either a particular point, as in the episodic, or over all time, as in the gnomic.
   
  • The episodic aspect refers to things that are happening in a particular situation at a particular time. "I jump", "They ate", and "He will go over there" are all examples in Tharian that would be translated using the episodic. The episodic is not marked by gestures in Kh'omchr'om; it is implicit in non-marked verbs. For example,
             Hnk oc. The orc bites.
             Nom LCSO h'rok. They eat the horse.
          
  • The gnomic aspect refers to things that are generally true, and are broadly applicable. "People need to eat", and "Fish swim and birds fly." are some examples in Tharian. The gesture HFMR is used to mark this aspect. For some examples,
             Rat-HFMR morgur m'ruk. Wargs (always) have fangs.
             Khq-HFMR ngangz. Archers (always) fight.
             Resz-HFMR ghun. Tombs are (always) cursed.
          

   Kh'omchr'om does not conjugate verbs in any context. Verbs are always used in the root, raw form. In contexts where the object of the verb is another verb, such as in the usage of the verb "pak" meaning "to wait", the verb alone is used, For example,
       Pak oc nom. The orc is waiting to eat.
   When the verb being used as an infinitive in English itself takes an object it is translated using the standard order. For example,
      Pak oc nom h'rok.  The orc is waiting to eat the horse.
   If the subject is different, it can be done using the typical order. For instance,
      Pak oc nom cha h'rok The orc is waiting for the female to eat the horse

   Voice, as in passive or active, can be translated using the affixes "k'" and "'u". The active voice rarely requires additional markers, such as,
      Nom cha. The woman eats.
      B'rak oc. The orc declares war.
   Yet in some contexts, the active does use the prefix "k'". It is used with a transitive verb to refer to verbs that would typically take a direct object, but do not in the context. For instance,
      K'uon LCMG. I see something.
      K'arq LCSO. They hit something.
   On the other hand, the passive involves the usage of the suffix "'u". For instance,
      Uon'u LFMG. You are being seen.
      Arq'u h'rok oc. The horse is hit by the orc.
   Note that without the affix "'u", the phrase would mean "The horse hits the orc".

Nouns.
   Nouns in Kh'omchr'om are not declined for gender, number, definiteness, or case. For instance the word "oc", can mean "an orc", "some orcs", "the orc", or "the orcs". It can be used interchangebly for any role in a sentence. Despite that, in some contexts the preposition "ar" is used to mark the partitive. For example,
      Rat LCSG ar yrr'la'h'rok. He has some milk of horse
   The usage of "ar" stresses the fact that that the subject of that phrase does not have all of the milk of horse, just some of it. Therefore, the following is also correct.
      Rat LCSG yrr'la'hrok. He has the milk of horse

Adjectives and Adverbs.
   Adjectives in Kh'omchr'om generally follow the noun they describe. For some examples,
      Shan wrosz. The lake is cold.
      Urdan oc hef itus ha'akh. The large orc destroys the tall tree.
   When more than one adjective is used to describe a single noun, the adjectives are used in series. There is no particular order for doing this.
      Ogm LCSO gob wrosz ghun. They move into the cold, cursed cave.
      Ogm LCSO gob ghun wrosz. "They move into the cold, cursed cave" or literally "They move into the cursed cold cave"
   Kh'omchr'om does not make the distinction between adjectives and adverbs. Instead the difference can be seen in the order. For instance,
      Ogm sa'ak tak. The boar moves quickly.
      Ogm tak sa'ak. The quick boar moves


   However, there is a set of irregular adjectives that precede the noun they describe. They are listed below.
   
  • y' diminutive meaning "young" or sometimes "weak".
  • m' negator meaning "not"
   To use these words, the following is done.
      Arq LCMO m'oc. I hit the non-orc
      Rat-HFMR y'oc h'rok. Young orcs always have horses
   Yet when the sentence does not have a verb, where in the Tharian the verb "to be" would be used, the object being described still comes first, as is regular. For instance,
      Y'haz. The guard is weak.
      LCMG m'y'oc. I am not a young orc.
   These, again, can be used as adverbs, as well as adjectives.
      Y'b'rak LCSO oc. They weakly declare war on the orcs.
      Haz oc m'ha'akh. The guard is not a tall orc.
    
Comparison.

    To compare objects to one another, Kh'omchr'om uses the gesture HCMG, signed during the noun being described. It can be translated as the  word "more". For instance,
        Haz saak-HCMG ar oc. The guard is quicker than the orc or literally Guard quick-more of orc
        Oc-HFMR dak-HCMG ar cha. Orcs are (always) more violent than women
    On the other hand, to form a superlative the gesture is used twice, both signed while the word is being spoken. As an example,
        LCSG HCMG-kroch-HCMG. He is the best
        Ogm HCMG-losh-HCMG gob. The truest moved into the cave


Possession.
   The possesion of objects is express in Kh'omchr'om in two ways:
      
  • First, the usage of the suffix "'om". For some examples,
                Resz'haz'om The Tomb of the Guards
                Rhom'y'oc'om The Plain of the Young Orcs
  • Second, the word "ar". This is used more commonly in day-to-day speech. For an example,
                H'rok ar LCMO Our horse
48  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Re: Alternative Orthography for Kh'om'chr'om on: 13 October 2014, 12:42:07
Yeah, I'll probably make a WIP post on the boards about an actual entry for the language, so that everyone can see my work as it expands.

My personal story for the language was for it to be a sort of creole language, original developed as a trade pidgin, but evolved into something more. Along that lines, the gestural component was originally mostly optional, but as time went on, became more and more integral to the language. That would also set up the obvious comparison to Plains Indian Sign Language.

Well, I'll get on that right away!
49  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Re: Alternative Orthography for Kh'om'chr'om on: 13 October 2014, 12:18:40
Yeah, upon further reflection, having two affricatives probably makes more sense. I'll change those, and learn the alphabet soon!  :D

Really, my ideas regarding the grammar would really be pretty simple.

- Kh'omchr'om is polysynthetic
- No copula
- Probably no distinguishing between tenses, just aspect (maybe a gnomic aspect?)

I don't want to step on anyone's feet here, so if any of this is too weird or unsantharian, just tell me, and I can stop.

Thanks.
50  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Re: Alternative Orthography for Kh'om'chr'om on: 13 October 2014, 01:09:51
Okay, I went through the word list and grabbed all the letters and obvious digraphs I could find.
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/18iaF76C2EVhFeo52JXDkxcK_X8EsGstLnrV7ByqJMsQ/edit?usp=sharing

I assigned the sound values, mostly as in what would be most obvious to an English-speaker, but with a few minor changes.

- the digraphs ending in ⟨h⟩ would use the ⟨h⟩ to mean /j/ as in the English "y". That would be rather unusual, but it adds a nice sound to the language, IMO.

- the single ⟨r⟩ and the ⟨rr⟩ would have different sound values. The first would be /ʁ/ as in French, and the second would be /ɹ/  as in the r in most English dialects.

And as to the relationship between the sounds and the gestures, I like the idea of having all grammar be either gestural or contextual, but with most lexical meaning coming from the spoken language.

So, what do you think?
51  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Re: Alternative Orthography for Kh'om'chr'om on: 12 October 2014, 02:16:59
Thanks so much for your feedback. In terms of the usage of letters over symbols, it seemed to me that symbols would be an unlikely choice to be used with late Middle Aged scholars.

My idea with having 4 3rd person gestures is to disambiguate between different ones. Each of them could be used in a context to refer to different objects, each with their own "location" so to speak. If that doesn't appeal to you, I could change that to something else.

My next work on Kh'omchr'om should probably just be on the spoken phonology and how it connects to the gestures. An update will be forthcoming.
52  Santharian World Development / Languages and Runes / Alternative Orthography for Kh'om'chr'om on: 10 October 2014, 12:19:53
Hi.

I've been interested in Santharia for a while, both on this account and others, and separately I've been studying linguistics. Kh'om'chr'om really appeals to me as idea of a combined spoken-sign language, but I think development on the language has really been stunted by the somewhat awkward orthography for expressing gestures. What I've come up in by not ideal, but I think it is better that the (really awesome and original) current symbol-dense version.

I don't want to hack with BBCode for the tables so this is the link.
https://docs.google.com/document/d/12PxnZYvPg3QAOA7BknQ8IOBk21TXAWcIjTdD4_JYSd8/edit?usp=sharing

Thanks so much for reading, and literally any feedback you can provide would be awesome.
53  Santharian World Development / Santharian Artists Workshop and Resources / Re: The Vardýnn Monster Map (completed) on: 19 November 2013, 07:43:17
Really beautiful map. The level of detail in this map (+ the Manthria one) is really incredible. All the details from the smoke from Hèckra, to the cliffs on the seashore are really beautifully done.

Thanks.
54  Organization and General Discussions / Newbie Information, Joining Requests and Recruitment / Re: Programmer Looking For Something To Do on: 22 March 2013, 05:05:29
I'm in the midst of working with the code, but if you have any interest in looking over at it, just go to https://c9.io/adamdavies_1/uninvited-santharia, which is where I'm currently looking at the code.
55  Organization and General Discussions / Newbie Information, Joining Requests and Recruitment / Re: Programmer Looking For Something To Do on: 22 March 2013, 01:08:33
Hi!

I've been super busy with RL stuff so I haven't had a ton of time to work on this, but it seems like the package you provided should be very helpful. I think the best plan would be to convert the Santhworld-specific package into a standard XML/JSON datafile so it can be parsed by others. That should be done real soon.

Thanks!
56  Organization and General Discussions / Newbie Information, Joining Requests and Recruitment / Re: Programmer Looking For Something To Do on: 12 March 2013, 11:12:17
Do you have a copy of the assets you used to create a Santhworld module, i.e, images, text, and music. I have some free time, so I may be able to create a port of Uninvited or a similarly small module to Windows 8.
57  Organization and General Discussions / Newbie Information, Joining Requests and Recruitment / Re: Programmer Looking For Something To Do on: 27 February 2013, 05:01:08
Does the site use a CMS, or is it all just static HTML?
58  Organization and General Discussions / Newbie Information, Joining Requests and Recruitment / Programmer Looking For Something To Do on: 27 February 2013, 04:21:10
Hi! I'm a guy whose always been intrested in fantasy, but have since become a programmer. I know C#, with experience in both Windows 8, Windows, and Windows Phone development, a wee bit of Java, and Python. Your website seems to be a bit outdated, with tables and <font> tags instead of CSS, and you're using Flash for the Santhworld game instead of a more mobile friendly environment. I've been playing through some of Santhworld, Nepris, Unvited and Enemy, and it seems it might  be a great fit for mobile. I could begin to port these to native clients for Windows 8, Windows Phone, and Android if I had the original assets, i.e, the beautiful art, sounds and text that are in these modules.

Thanks!
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